Basic overview

This is the first paragraph of the vaccination issue brief I handed out in class:

vaccine 1

Look at the first endnote:endnote 1


First and last name, “Title of article,” Title of Journal Volume (number) (year): pages.

^^^This is a hard copy; note: there’s no notation of how to access online.

There is another source in this first endnote:

UNICEF, “Vaccines Bring 7 Diseases Under Control,” available at http://www.unicef.org/pon96/ hevaccin.htm (last accessed May 2013).

This is a website, so we note when the site was accessed for this work because websites can change.


Look at the second endnote:

First and last name, “Title of article,” Title of Journal Volume (number) (year): page it begins, available at _________________.

This is a journal which has made its contents available online. And so, we note the page it begins and where, online, it is available. Because it’s not simply a website, but a downloadable pdf accessed via a website, you needn’t note when it was last accessed.

endnote 1

Take a look at endnote #3 ^^^^^:

Note that it has multiple sources. This is a powerful indicator of the quality of the data:  more than one source notes this. Further, this endnote is used to explain an idea which, if explained in the paper, might disrupt the flow of the point and writing.


This next two paragraphs utilize 3 endnotes:

text 4 and 6

endnotes 4 5 6

Endnote  4 uses two sources. The second source, May and Silverman, is used again for Endnote 6 and Endnote 29 below.

text 29


endnote 29

Note that Endnote 6 doesn’t use a page number and 29 does. Use of page number indicates the information comes directly from a particular page. Endnote 4 directs us to the information for the first time. Having no page number indicates the information comes from the same page as the previous citation. When in doubt, however, use page numbers.

Here’s the original journal article from Thomas May and Ross Silverman:

vaccine may and silverman


When you use the same source(s) consecutively, you may simply use Ibid., “an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem,  which means “in the same place.” If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use ‘Ibid.’ followed by a comma and the new page number(s).”(https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/)

ibid and more than one author

When using sources with more than one authors (as above), cite the first listed author followed by “and others” or “et al.” which is Latin for “and others.”



Next, note the way first and subsequent citations are written: 

writing names

The first use of a source uses first and last name. Subsequent uses uses only the last name. If the same author is used but for different works, treat that author as  “new” author, citing the author’s full name:

endnote 12 endnote 17