Epipens Unraveled: HofPC Contract

  • Intro/Hook
  • Background
  • Introduce controversy
  • Present both sides
    • Testimony
    • Business ethics
  • Conclusion

Group Member


Allie Mollo

History and background

Allison White

Trial of CEO and other businesses doing the same thing to consumers

Caitlin Williams

Safety in home remedies

Black market (?) -ebay

Pritika Singh

Consumers and alternative products

Pricing and insurance costs

Generic brand

Thesis: The dramatic increase in the price of EpiPen epinephrine injectors has decreased public safety, exasperated economic disparity among consumers, and allowed Mylan to abuse the deregulation of the free market.

Connotation Spins Unraveled: A Preliminary Outline of my TED Talk

  • Opening
    • There are some words that we just shouldn’t say.
    • Taught this from a young age.
    • Personal anecdote
    • So why, then, are we increasingly accepting the placement of a positive spin on some of history’s most malicious terms?
    • Introduce terms
  • Bitch
    • Why this is okay
    • Can apply to all people
      • Not discriminatory
    • Acceptance of this word is not a primary concern
  • N-word / other racial slurs
    • Why this is NOT okay
    • Calls out a direct audience
      • Causes more racial tension
      • Spurs cultural appropriation
      • Discriminatory
    • Acceptance of this word is a primary concern
  • Closing
  • Who owns these words?
    • Restate thesis (probably not a question)
    • Call to action
      • Actively work to fight against the application of positive connotations
      • Better for society

“Bitch” Unraveled: A Quick Overview of my Paradigm Shift Essay, Which Will Analyze the Shift in This Term Over Time

The Rise of the Bitch


  1. https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/ppmx3m/the-evolution-of-the-bitch-905
  2. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-36627061
  3. http://www.createcultivate.com/blog/2015/12/20/the-great-bitch-conumdrum
  4. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/zoe-triska/post_4332_b_2526243.html
  5. https://www.theodysseyonline.com/the-evolution-of-bitch
  6. https://mdh.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1115312/FULLTEXT01.pdf
  7. https://soar.wichita.edu/ds2/stream/?#/documents/4079/page/4
  8. https://www.thebusinesswomanmedia.com/called-a-bitch-good-thing/
  9. http://www.thegrindstone.com/2012/03/05/office-politics/is-the-word-btch-a-compliment-now-960/
  10. https://www.xojane.com/issues/i-use-bitch-as-a-term-of-endearment-and-feel-like-a-bad-feminist
  11. https://jezebel.com/stop-being-nice-all-the-time-and-start-embracing-your-i-504747512
  12. https://totalsororitymove.com/why-getting-called-a-bitch-is-actually-a-good-thing/


  • Introduction
    • Hook
    • Fluff– Over the past few decades, society’s general employment of the word “bitch” has shifted.
    • Thesis– The meaning of “bitch” has evolved from a terrible insult into a term that can be used for general addressing, endearment, empowerment, and even complimenting.
  • Background Paragraph(s)
    • Origin of the word– refers to a female dog
    • History of how it was used
    • Examples of it used negatively in older medias
  • Demoralization of Women
    • How men would use the word to undermine women– Because the term was originally defined as a female dog, men would use it to compare women to mutts and undermine their intelligence, authority, and ableness.
    • Elevate own status
    • “Son of a bitch”– In fact, the term “son of a bitch” demonstrates man’s use of the word to simultaneously insult a man and the woman who conceived that man.
  • Transition period
    • Initial spark
    • Feminism’s roleBitch magazine
    • Piggyback effect
    • Reactions to the paradigm
  • Used in MANY positive ways now
    • Term of general address
      • “Yes, bitch!”
      • Media example-
    • Term of endearment
      • “That’s my bitch”
      • Media example-
    • Term of empowerment
      • “She’s a boss bitch”
      • Media example-
    • Term used to compliment
      • “Bad bitch”
      • Media example-
  • Conclusion
    • Thesis– In conclusion, the word “bitch,” which we now use to address, endear, empower, and compliment, has demonstrated a significant shift in connotation from negative to positive.
    • Summary
    • Thought-provoking statement

Photography Unraveled: Recognizing the Power of Pictures in a Rhetorical Context

Whir, zoom, click, and the flash shutters quickly. Cameras allow us to capture pivotal moments in time, and if Lynsey Addario teaches us nothing else through It’s What I Do, it’s this idea. Lynsey’s images take captive of powerful scenes that have the authority to change the way people perceive the world and its inhabitants. Two images in particular strike me in a meaningful manner.

This image can be found in the section of photos between pages 146 and 147. It is the fourth page of photography in this section.

In the image above, Lynsey has captured a busy scene of Pakistani women in their natural, everday life. This photograph intrigues me, because it features the face covering, the niqab particularly well. Niqabs cloak a woman’s head and face in a veil-like fashion entirely…except for her eyes. Some refer to the eyes as the portals to one’s inner thoughts. It is interesting that we choose to hide a feature such as the mouth, which many would imagine to be the most important. After all, it does allow us to communicate, smile, and laugh. However, a woman’s eyes are powerful. They convey emotions like fear, joy, weariness, intriguement, and tranquility.

The photograph featured below moves me in an inspirational way. Pictured is Kahindo, a mother of two children that rapists bestowed upon her. She lives her life to raise her children and teach them to be better people than the ones who held her captive for multiple years. The image catches Kahindo sitting up with a straight spine. Regardless of the horrendous past that she has lived through, Kahindo recognizes her worth. As she illuminates even the darkest of situations, Kahindo serves as an inspiration to many women.

This image can be found in the section of photos between pages 210 and 211. It is the eleventh page of photography in this section.

In my blog posts, I try to incorporate only photographs that I take myself. I know that I am no Lynsey Addario, but I think that there is something special about being able to embody my thoughts not only through English phrasing and syntax, but also through images, which are a universal language. I try to convey my messages as adequately as possible using words, but my pictures aid my audience in comprehending thoughts that are a bit more complex.

Cigarettes Unraveled: A Working Draft of My Rhetorical Analysis Essay

  • Audience- America’s top and most successful engineers
  • Place to publish- letter?
  • Kairos- TBD
  • Claim- cigarettes are devastating things and need to be rid from the country (why haven’t they been already?)
  • ***Snapchat has yet to be incorporated***


Did you know that the leading preventable cause of death could be found in pretty much any high school bathroom in the 1970s?


Tobacco Who?

When, Why, and How Cigarettes?

Smoking tobacco has been a common activity in America since the 17th century, but the cigarette was manifested in 1865 when a wise North Carolinian decided that he would roll cigarettes and sell them to others for profit. Quickly, dominate companies emerged and large factories were built. The cigarette had been commercialized. At the time, cigarette smoking was known widely as something that only soldiers did; however, companies boosted the public’s interest in cigarettes by promoting cartophily, which is the act of trading cards from cigarette packaging with other individuals who also smoke. The idea was that in order for people to partake in cartophily, they must be smokers.


Society is Socialized

A Look at the Social Effects of this Phenomenon

Late in the 1950s, smoking climbed to the peak of the social ladder. Popular figures in the media used their platforms to consciously or unconsciously (who knows?) glamorize and popularize cigarette smoking. Famous faces of the cinema like James Dean and Humphrey Bogart, whom young men idolized, were always captured with cigarette in hand. Resultantly, every normal dude wanted cigarettes for himself. Audrey Hepburn engaged the civic in smoking by elevating the status of it, making it look sophisticated. Rather than weighting down her wrist with a hefty and cumbersome pipe, a woman could don the slim and convenient cigarette. At the turning point of the decade, nearly HALF of American adults smoked cigarettes. Advertising had reached an entirely new level when cigarette companies began associating smoking with things that today we would find preposterous, like intelligence and health improvement. The companies would produce advertising methods that framed cigarette smoking as an activity that doctors partake in across the nation. These large companies manipulated the civic’s gullibility to irrationally assume that smoking cigarettes would propel them to a new level of intelligence and success. Other advertisements claimed that cigarettes could cure your cough or sore throats, but we now know of smoking’s adverse effects. It’s likely that if you viewed an advertisement for cigarettes today, you’d laugh at the absurdity of the content. But keep in mind that back in the 50s and 60s, plain folk were unaware of the propaganda techniques that were in use. Rather than questioning an artifact’s ethos, they were much more likely to believe anything that they read. However, the widespread use of cigarettes occurred due to more than just advertising via posters. Popular music contained references to cigarettes as well. Otis Redding, in his 1966 hit, “Cigarettes and Coffee,” sings the following lyric.

“I would love to have another drink of coffee now / And please, darling, help me smoke this one more cigarette now / I don’t want no cream and sugar ‘Cause I’ve got you, now darling”

Redding describes coffee and cigarettes as daily needs, and he even personifies the cigarette by calling it “darling.” According to the United States Federal Trade Commission, it was pretty much impossible for an American to avoid advertising for cigarettes in 1967. Due to this overwhelming flooding of advertising and propaganda within the media, cigarettes became a commonplace within 1960s American culture. Smoking was cool- so if you wanted to be cool, you needed to smoke.


Losing Loved Ones

Addressing the Issue with Our Friends and Family

Undoubtedly, there is more to the social scene of cigarettes than can be seen by the public eye. Smoking tears apart homes behind closed doors. While the smoker’s body is dependently tied to the nicotine in a way that mimics an non divorceable marriage, the smoker’s family is feeling the effects of the cigarettes just as aggressively. According to a 21st century study conducted by Doctor John Spangler, the addiction to cigarettes can be passed on through generations. It was shown that even if the smoker quits before having kids, children of smokers (past and present) are up to 29% more likely to be cigarette users.

Secondhand smoke is a common issue, and families want to address and remove the cigarettes while they have the opportunity to do so. Family members have been diagnosed with lung cancer before even if they’ve never touched a cigarette with their hands before; but they touched them with their lungs, and that’s enough. But have you ever heard of thirdhand smoke? Thirdhand smoke is a newer discovery in which the leftover toxins of the cigarettes find their way across homes and embed themselves into carpets and wood furnishings (even window sills.) These carcinogens are SO strong, however, that they cannot be removed by cleaning. Cigarette chemicals stubbornly engrave not only the lives of the users, but also now their houses, too. This means that a cigarette-obsesses grandfather who dies before meeting his granddaughter will be spreading these carcinogens to her from the moment she is born if she lives in the same home.

Family members constantly try to deter their loved ones from persisting with the terrible habit of smoking, but oftentimes, their cries and pleads of help are not received well. In extreme scenarios, an individual will address their smoking loved one with a statement like this- “It’s me or the cigarettes.” Far too many times, the cigarettes win. I, however, was fortunate enough to have a positive experience with eliminating the use of cigarettes. On March 30, 2008, I was nine and my little brother, Matty, was turning two! For his birthday, he asked my dad to please stop smoking. He had seen an image from a Diary of a Wimpy Kid book, in which a man who loved cigarettes was depicted to be deteriorating physically. Matty told my dad that he doesn’t want my dad to look like the cartoon drawing and that he doesn’t want him to die… That was the day when my father smoked his last cigarette.


We, the People, Fight Cigarette Use

Rules and Regulations Regarding the Cigarette

For a long time, cigarettes were not regulated by America’s Food and Drug Administration. In 2008, however, President Obama took a stride to eliminate the cigarettes by enacting the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Under this legislation, the FDA was given a role of authority in regulating the marketing and manufacturing methods of these cigarette corporate giants. Resultantly, cigarette advertisements were weakened and the display of health concerns on cigarette packaging was strengthened. Unfortunately, the changes have not been reported to have a dramatic influence on cigarette users.

What’s more, we’ve all seen the anti-smoking commercials. Many of them explicitly illustrate a body being destroyed by cigarettes, and they’re direct enough to call out smokers. “This is what your future of your lungs looks like,” or “This is how you’ll die.” Even these though, are not enough to stop the use of cigarettes in the country.

Well, it seems like we’ve done all that we can do, right? If the government has implemented revisions and those downright terrible commercials don’t do the trick…how will we ever eliminate the presence of cigarettes in our society? I call to you (yes, you) to brainstorm a solution that eradicates cigarette usage. If anyone in this nation can spark this change, I know it’s one of you all.

Priority Feelings Unraveled: The Common Conflict of Choosing Loved Ones

On page 169 of It’s What I Do, Lynsey Addario expresses an internal conflict that is forcing her to choose between loved ones. Addario’s close friend and partner in photography, Elizabeth, is working alongside Addario on a project featuring the American troops in the Middle East. What’s more, though, is that Elizabeth is pregnant. To say the least, she is certainly in a more precarious setting than the typical mother-to-be. Keeping careful watch over her friend and the unborn child, Addario is constantly concerned about Elizabeth’s wellbeing. Addario, deciding to take a break from her unpredictably dangerous lifestyle, heads home for a bit to spend some personal time with her boyfriend, Paul. What was supposed to be a nice vacation from her work becomes unsettling when Addario finds herself continuously worrying over her friend and the overwhelming presence of “a constant, gnawing guilt.” When she discovers that Elizabeth had an episode of severe dehydration, Addario is compelled to leave Paul’s side and rush to Elizabeth’s.

Addario is addressing a conflict that many of us face on a regular basis. Addario calls on the audience to recognize this as a relatable issue by referring to her time spent with Paul as “regrouping and decompressing,” which seem all too simple to be apart of Addario’s life, but routine and necessary in our own. It’s true, though. We oftentimes find ourselves so ridiculously busy that we have to choose to whom or what we delegate our spare time.

Personally, I have found myself experiencing a conflict of this nature since I moved to University Park. I miss all of my friends and family dearly, but sometimes they all want to talk to me on the same night, and I just cannot make time for everyone. Or maybe I have so much schoolwork that I can’t talk to a single one of them. It’s sad, but this conflict is one that penetrates the lives of us all.

I am not sure that this conflict can directly fit itself into my passion blog, Happy in the Valley. Although, the happy scenarios that I describe in my blog can certainly counter one’s longing for a particular loved one or serve as a distraction from the guilt that people may experience that corresponds with this conflict of choosing.