Eigenvalues-based LSB steganalysis

So far, various components of image characteristics have been used for steganalysis, including the histogram characteristic function, adjacent colors distribution, and sample pair analysis. However, some certain steganography methods have been proposed that can thwart some analysis approaches through managing the embedding patterns. In this regard, the present paper is intended to introduce a new analytical method for detecting stego images, which is robust against some of the embedding patterns designed specifically to foil steganalysis attempts. The proposed approach is based on the analysis of the eigenvalues of the cover correlation matrix used for the purpose of the study. Image cloud partitioning, vertical correlation function computation, constellation of the correlated data, and eigenvalues examination are the major challenging stages of this analysis method. The proposed method uses the LSB plane of images in spatial domain, extendable to transform domain, to detect low embedding rates-a major concern in the area of the LSB steganography. The simulation results based on deviation detection and rate estimation methods indicated that the proposed approach outperforms some well-known LSB steganalysis methods, specifically at low embedding rates.

Eigenvalues-based LSB steganalysis

SVD and Noise Estimation based Image Steganalysis

We propose a novel image steganalysis method, based on singular value decomposition and noise estimation, for the spatial domain LSB embedding families. We first define a content independence parameter, DS, that is calculated for each LSB embedding rate. Next, we estimate the DS curve and use noise estimation to improve the curve approximation accuracy. It is shown that the proposed approach gives an estimate of the LSB embedding rate, as well as information about the existence of the embedded message (if any). The proposed method can effectively be applied to a wide range of the image LSB steganography families in spatial domain. To evaluate the proposed scheme, we applied the method to a large image database. Using a large image database, simulation results of our steganalysis scheme indicate significant improvement to both true detection and false alarm rates.

Full text > SVD and noise estimation based image steganalysis

Multi-dimensional correlation steganalysis

Multi-dimensional spatial analysis of image pixels have not been much investigated for the steganalysis of the LSB Steganographic methods. Pixel distribution based steganalysis methods could be thwarted by intelligently compensating statistical characteristics of image pixels, as reported in several papers. Simple LSB replacement methods have been improved by introducing smarter LSB embedding approaches, e.g. LSB matching and LSB+ methods, but they are basically the same in the sense of the LSB alteration. A new analytical method to detect LSB stego images is proposed in this paper. Our approach is based on the relative locations of image pixels that are essentially changed in an LSB embedding system. Furthermore, we introduce some new statistical features including “local entropies sum” and “clouds min sum” to achieve a higher performance. Simulation results show that our proposed approach outperforms some well-known LSB steganalysis methods, in terms of detection accuracy and the embedding rate estimation.

Multi-dimensional correlation steganalysis

Game-theoretic model to mitigate packet dropping

Performance of routing is severely degraded when misbehaving nodes drop packets instead of properly forwarding them. In this paper, we propose a Game-Theoretic Adaptive Multipath Routing (GTAMR) protocol to detect and punish selfish or malicious nodes which try to drop information packets in routing phase and defend against collaborative attacks in which nodes try to disrupt communication or save their power. Our proposed algorithm outranks previous schemes because it is resilient against attacks in which more than one node coordinate their misbehavior and can be used in networks which wireless nodes use directional antennas. We then propose a game theoretic strategy, ERTFT, for nodes to promote cooperation. In comparison with other proposed TFT-like strategies, ours is resilient to systematic errors in detection of selfish nodes and does not lead to unending death spirals.

Website > Game-Theoretic Network Simulator (GTNS)

Full text > Game-theoretic approach to mitigate packet dropping in wireless ad-hoc networks

Code > GTNS


Risk of attack coefficient effect on availability of adhoc networks

Security techniques have been designed to obtain certain objectives. One of the most important objectives all security mechanisms try to achieve is the availability, which insures that network services are available to various entities in the network when required. But there has not been any certain parameter to measure this objective in network. In this paper we consider availability as a security parameter in ad-hoc networks. However this parameter can be used in other networks as well. We also present the connectivity coefficient of nodes in a network which shows how important is a node in a network and how much damage is caused if a certain node is compromised.

Risk of attack coefficient effect on availability of adhoc networks

Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol in 4G

Private Identification, Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol with Security Mode Setup

Farshid Farhat, Somayeh Salimi, Ahmad Salahi

Identification, authentication and key agreement protocol of UMTS networks with security mode setup has some weaknesses in the case of mutual freshness of key agreement, DoS-attack resistance, and efficient bandwidth consumption. In this article we consider UMTS AKA and some other proposed schemes. Then we explain the known weaknesses of the previous frameworks suggested for the UMTS AKA protocol. After that we propose a new protocol called private identification, authentication, and key agreement protocol (PIAKAP), for UMTS mobile network. Our suggested protocol combines identification and AKA stages of UMTS AKA protocol while eliminates disadvantages of related works and brings some new features to improve the UMTS AKA mechanism. These features consist of reducing the interactive rounds of the UMTS AKA with security mode setup and user privacy establishment.

Full manuscript @ piakap

Related works > Enhanced Public Key Encryption Algorithm for Network Security Advanced_Identity_Management_System_in_4G_Wireless_Networks Patent US9461993 – System and methods for UICC-based secure communication Applications of Repeated Games in Wireless networks a survey BRP_final-znwz4a


Secure Multipath Adaptive Routing Protocol

Locally multipath adaptive routing (LMAR) protocol, classified as a new reactive distance vector routing protocol for MANETs is proposed in this paper. LMAR can find an ad-hoc path without selfish nodes and wormholes using a random search algorithm in polynomial-time. Also when the primary path fails, it discovers an alternative safe path if network graph remains connected after eliminating selfish/malicious nodes. The main feature of LMAR to seek safe route free of selfish and malicious nodes in polynomial time is its searching algorithm and flooding stage that its generated traffic is equiloaded compared to single-path routing protocols but its ability to bypass the attacks is much better than the other multi-path routing protocols. LMAR concept is introduced to provide the security feature known as availability and a simulator has been developed to analyze its behavior. Efficiency of the route discovery stage is analyzed and compared with the previous algorithms.

Locally Multipath Adaptive Routing Protocol Resilient to Selfishness and Wormholes

Extended Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol

Identification, authentication and key agreement protocol of UMTS networks have some weaknesses to provide DoS-attack resistance, mutual freshness, and efficient bandwidth consumption. In this article we consider UMTS AKA and some other proposed schemes. Then we explain the known weaknesses in the previous frameworks suggested for UMTS AKA protocol. After that we propose a new UMTS AKA protocol (called EAKAP) for UMTS mobile network that combines identification stage and AKA stage of UMTS AKA protocol as well as eliminating disadvantages of related works and bringing some new features to improve the UMTS AKA mechanism such as reducing the interactive rounds of the UMTS AKA protocol.

Extended Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol of UMTS

Optical CDMA Network Simulator (OCNS)

Optical CDMA Wireless Multi-User Network System includes some transmitters and receivers. In this network, an Optical Orthogonal Code (OOC) is assigned to each user (Tx or Rx) to connect to its equivalent-OOC user and after synchronization between this two equivalent-OOC user, they can send and receive data to/from each other.
In this project, I worked to design and Implement a simulator for Optical CDMA Wireless Multi-User Network. This simulator has eliminated some of practical problems like number of users can be used by network practically.
OCNS is the name of the simulator for Optical CDMA Networks. I did this project as my BS Project. My supervisor, Prof. Pakravan, suggested me this project in April 2004. In July 2004, I finished the documentation of this project in persian language. I developed OCNS by using Visual C++ software. I’ve presented the defined classes in my project below.


Defined Classes:



[1] Farshid Farhat, “Optical CDMA Network Simulator,” BS Thesis, Sharif University of Technology, 2005.