Category Archives: 5 theses

UNIFICATION OF AGRICULTURE AND ARCHITECTURE BY RURALIZATION IN JAPAN

Periodical: Japan Architecture+ Urbanism

Thesis: With the limited land space in Japan and cities, reaching their capacities, Japanese architecture should focus on innovating designs that can create an environment that would allow the people to benefit from its agricultural and urban function.

After being isolated from the world during the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, Japan’s isolation ended. Since then, Japanese architecture and culture was paused in time. The opening of the country forced Japan into a westernization movement. This movement made architecture one of the focuses on Japan. At this point in time, Japan’s sole purpose was to focus on creating newer cities where people could manifest a western lifestyle. Even though the architecture was made to increase the aesthetic of Japan, the new cities were built on land where population was greater in numbers than any other location in the country. Since the end of the of the westernization movement in the early 1900’s, Japanese cities have grown exponentially. Many cities like Tokyo, Yokohama, and Osaka have developed such that much of the land has been converted into urbanized areas that rely on innovative architecture. With over 127 million people living in the country, people have exhausted the land usage and have no choice but to rely on high-rise buildings. Many modern Japanese architects and landscape architects focus their careers on trying to create sustainable cities, but are still limited by the maximum space they can work with. As limited land space in Japan, reaching their capacities, Japanese architecture should focus on innovating designs that can create an environment that would allow the people to benefit from its agricultural and urban function.

Land in Japan is based on mountainous and volcanic structure, which leaves no alternative for people to build in an environment where easy access is possible. Some of the land has been developed to increase the accommodation of agriculture that allows people to harvest food and crops to provide to the cities. Japan’s agriculture fields extend farther due to the fertile possibility of the land. As a result, the focus on agriculture is prioritize compared to the significance of construction. About 20% of the land is suitable for agriculture and 68% belongs to forestry (Barnes). Many of the mountainsides and the plains are used for farming and terraces for cultivating farmland. The division between agriculture and urban is enforced by government officials to prevent contamination and pollution of the crop fields by cities. This restriction limits what is built and forces the majority of the population in one area.

While the land is developed as farmland, and forestry is protected, the increase of population continues to eradicate many areas around the land. Some lands are razed to accommodate the population and increase the housing for the people. The population in land accounts for 12% in all of Japan. Many cities have become overpopulated, leading to people to live in high-rise complexes. Minimal spacious rooms are designed to accommodate single families that reside in many urban cities. Families in Japan containing three or four members dwell in rooms where the size is compared to those of a single living space in the United States. With many people living in urban areas, the cities tend to depend on the transportation of food and the export of material. As a result, the environment is inflicted with issues caused by the urban living. The infliction towards the surrounding affects how much of the environment can be changed.

As innovative development in cities cease, buildings are stacked or miniaturized to accommodate as much people as possible. High-rise structures in many cities tend to house major commercial spaces, restricting where people can live. Commercial spaces tend to be prioritized over residential. This diminishes the possible locations of residences. High-rise buildings should be designed to allow people to interact and use their surrounding environment. Architecture should involve the agriculture usage as a means of vitalizing the lifestyle of the people. Buildings should adequately place above ground to allow for natural ventilation and sun to reach the crops being grown below. Ideally, the building should be lifted off the ground and placed on columns where the structural support is being helped by the other building. This creates a continuous connection between buildings. In 1966, renowned Japanese architect Kenzo Tange proposed a concept that would allow the Japanese people to live in high-rise buildings by extending the buildings from a core system that would allow future development of the site (figure A).

 

Figure A
Figure A

This project was developed to renew the Tsukiji District in Japan that would optimize the usage of houses. By using the concept of the Tsukiji Project, architecture and agriculture can be combined into one system. By using the core system, one can free the landscape to allow the accommodation of crop fields and agricultural usage. As the architecture and structure are raised from the ground, the building does not conflict with surrounding nature, thus allowing the environment to flourish and produce clean, organic and natural atmosphere. The structure allows the people to live in areas where the ground is uneven and construction is not allowed. As a result, the land tends to be cleaner and healthier for people to live in. The use of roads is minimized and the surrounding begins to intertwine as a whole community.

Another Japanese architecture proposed a parallel project that allows individual dwellings to hang from a single megastructure. Kiyonori Kikutake designed the Marine City that utilizes a core system (figure B). While the Marine City resembles the Tsukiji Project, Kikukate’s proposal dedicates two zones of the main core to two housing system. Each system is composed of eight compacted above ground, relieving the landscape of major construction. The use of individual house allows the dwellers to live in their own property while still sharing the main structure. The individualization of the each unit creates a personal space for each family in which allows the member to occupy their own spaces.

 

Figure B
Figure B

A modern concept can be seen in Singapore. The Interlace designed by Ore Scheeren and OMA allows the connection between dwellers and the landscape (Figure c).This complex takes advantage of every single square footage by stacking the individual units on top of each other, creating a sense of spatial interaction (Arch Daily). The dwelling units double the capability of residence without interfering with the surrounding environment. Due to the small confliction between the building and the surroundings, the complex actualizes the potential increase of the land by amplifying the greenery on the surfaces of the units (Figure D). By following the same example illustrated by Scheeren, cities should be able to accommodate large families with their space needs in their homes. As the architectural dwelling increases, cities are able to expand spaces, yet, relieving the stress in nature. By increasing the land to better the people, architecture inflicts less damage to the surrounding after construction. The landscape creates special areas where people can utilize the land to raise crops.

Figure C
Figure C
Figure D
Figure D

Due to many oppositions in construction and budget, projects like this are likely to be built because of the major impact it has towards the city before construction. Before a city can manifest in redevelopment, cities locations must be razed to accommodate the new development. At times, this causes the city to backlash in the development. The movement of current dwellers in an old residence affects how the city function and many residences are not able to afford the changes in lifestyle. In some cases, the project itself becomes unsatisfactory within the city limits. Some cities become unaware that housing becomes part of local taxation and thus conflicts with living expenses, thus the area becomes gentrified. This diminish the possibility of how many dwellings can actually be built. The structural possibility is at a disadvantage as the size of the core system would be dramatically impossible. The size of the core system would be so large that it would take more than the given land. On the other hand, the raising of crops benefits the dwellers; it lowers the profits of some other consumers. In some areas the growth of crops and food are a source of finance, as such, the cities depend on the commercial use. With the relocation of agriculture fields into personal use, agriculture field can become unusable and neglected.

By using architectural design, it is possible to merge agricultural and urban land. Many architects like Kenzo Tange, Ore Scheeren have innovated the way people and nature interact with one another. Their work manifests the ideals of this unison. While the prevention of pollution is controllable, many Japanese cities have become urbanized to a point that have created many of the major environmental issues seen in Japan. Incorporating hybrid buildings where people are able to grow their own crops would increase the sustainability of the cities in Japan. This increases the availability of land, people uses in their daily life. By relying in cities where sustainability is part of a mechanical system, cities become unsuitable by nature. Thus, by allowing nature to be part of the daily life of the people and its surrounding, cities flourish in better habitats, cleaner cities, and suitable lifestyles. The increase of ruralization in cities helps the rate of ecological and expansion of land for people. This creates better self-sustain cities that would flourish for centuries.

 

Works Cited

Barnes, Gina L. Origins of the Japanese Islands: The New “Big Picture”. Durham, England, n.d.

Japan, Web. Environmental Issues, Japan. n.d. 25 10 2015.

Johnston, Bruce F. Agricultural Development and Economic Transformation: A Comparative Study of the Japanese Experience. n.d.

Sawada, Shujiro. Agriculture and Economic Growth: Japan’s Experience. Princeton University Press, 1969.

Schalk, Meike. The Architecture of Metabolism. MDPI, Basel, 2014.

Yoshiyasu, Ida, et al. Geography Education in Japan. Springer, 2015.

“The Interlace / OMA” 06 May 2015. ArchDaily. Accessed 13 Dec 2015. <http://www.archdaily.com/627887/the-interlace-oma-2/>

Unification of Agriculture and Architecture by Ruralization

Since the ending of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, Japan was forced into westernization by other countries. This movement made architecture one of the main focus of Japan. At this point in time, Japan’s sole purpose was to focus in creating newer cities were people could manifest a western movement. Even though architecture was made to increase the aesthetic of Japan, the new cities were built in land were population was greater in numbers than any other location in the country. Land in Japan is based in mountainous and volcanic structure which leaves no alternative for people to build in shallow and flat environment where easy access is possible. This restriction limits what is built and forces the majority of the population to one possible location. With over 127 million people living in cities like Tokyo, people have exhausted their land usage and have no choice but to rely in high rise buildings. However, the capacity of high rise buildings are reaching a peak where is not possible to accommodate people living in the city. Due to the land being so limited and precious, the focus of architecture is lessen compare to the value of agriculture. The environment has been increase to accommodate agricultural advantages that allows people to harvest food and crops to provide to the cities which diminishes the possibility of construction. As result, urban cities depend on the transportation of crops from the agriculture fields. Attributable to the volcanic structure in the land, the land is highly fertilize and is filled with nutrients that makes crops very easily to grow and expand. The division between agriculture and urban is reinforced by government officials to prevent contamination and pollution of the crop fields from urban cities. As a result, the urban cities stop developing and buildings are either stacked or miniaturize to accommodate as much people as possible. Many modern Japanese architects focus their career in trying to create sustainable cities but are still limited by the maximum space they are working with. Landscape architects emphasize in in creating many certain location to provide greenery to urban cities. However, this emphasis doesn’t merge the agriculture and urban function where people depend in transported goods. With the limited land space in Japan and urban cities being overpopulated, Japanese architecture should focus in merging land and urban design in order to create a unison environment that would allow the people to benefit from its agricultural function and still live in an urban atmosphere. By using architectural design, it is possible to merge agricultural and urban land. Incorporating hybrid buildings where people are able to grow their own crops would increase the sustainability of the cities in Japan. This increases the availability of land people use in their daily life. Instead of relying in cities where sustainability is part of a mechanical system, the ruralization of cities increases the rate of how cities are really ecological and at the end expands land for people that needed the most creating a better self-sustain cities that would flourish for centuries.

Lazarin, Michael. “Phenomenology Of Japanese Architecture: En (Edge, Connection, Destiny).” Studia Phaenomenologica 14.(2014): 133-159. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

Inoue, Mitsuo, 1918-. Space In Japanese Architecture. New York: Weatherhill, 1985.

Kokusai Kōryū Kikin, et al.. Japan 2000: Architecture And Design for the Japanese Public. Munich: Prestel Verlag , 1998.

Shinozawa, Kenta (2006). “Structure of Natural Environment and Topography envisioned in the Development Process of Senri New Town”. Journal of The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture (1340-8984), 69 (5), p. 817.

Nemoto, Tetsuo (2008). “Transitions of Factors in Planning and Design Process in the Realization of Tama New Town Development Plan Based upon the Natural Topography”. Journal of The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture (1340-8984), 71 (5), p. 801.

Lippit, Seiji M. Topographies of Japanese Modernism. New York, NY: Columbia UP, 2002.

 

photography by; Andrea Williams

 

5 THESES: ANDREW BARNETT, CHRISTOPHER SCALZO, JUSTIN CHEN

THESIS 1:
The dawn of the second major era of urbanization and gentrification has led to unsustainable cities with population growth only surpassed by that of their associated problems related to; insufficient infrastructure, housing bubbles, and municipal neglect.
SOURCES:
Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution and How it Can Renew America – Thomas Friedman (Farrar, Strauss, and Giraux, New York, NY, 2008)
New Globalism, New Urbanism: Gentrification as Global Urban Strategy – Neil Smith
The Chaos and Complexity of Gentrification – R.A. Beauregard
(In Gentrification of the City, 1986)
The Death and Life of Great American Cities – Jane Jacobs (Random House, New York, NY, 1961)
The Unsustainable City – Andrew Blowers & Kathy Pain
(In Unruly Cities, Edit. Chris Brook, Gerry Mooney, Steve Pile)
Unsustainable Cities, a Tragedy of Urban Infrastructure – Tomaz Ponce Dentinho
THESIS 2:
The advent of convention centers full of the latest ‘green technology’ at the fingertips of architects across the globe has numbed their sensibility towards the time-tested architectural solutions to problems that otherwise require a veritable rats-nest of systems coordination to solve.
SOURCES:
Architect Frank Gehry Talks LEED and the Future of Green Building – Abby Leonard
Critics Say LEED Program Doesn Fullfill It’s Promises – Franklyn Cater
Green Architecture – James Wines (Taschen, Cologne, Germany, 2000)
Green Architecture in India: Combining Modern Technology with Traditional Methods – Raj Jadhav
Traditional Architecture Offers a Strong Foundation for Green Building – Leon Kaye
Why Green Architecture Hardle Ever Deserves the Name – Micahel Mmhaffy & Nikos Salingaros
THESIS 3:

Despite criticism for a lack of zeitgeist and “cheapness”, temporary architecture is both a socially and economically sound solution.

SOURCES:

Biklen, Noah K, Ameet N. Hiremath, and Hannah H. Purdy. Temporary Architecture. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2003. Print.

Burkhardt Leitner Constructiv GmbH. Temporary Architecture: Burkhardt Leitner : Global Network. Stuttgart: Burkhardt Leitner Constructiv, 2011. Print.

Chabrowe, Barbara. On The Significance of Temporary Architecture. The Burlington Magazine Publications Ltd. Vol. 116, No. 856 (Jul., 1974), pp. 384-388+391. Print.

Jodidio, Philip. Temporary Architecture Now! =: Temporäre Architektur Heute! = L’architecture Éphémère D’aujourd’hui!Cologne: Taschen, 2011. Print.

Lombardo, Grazia. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 6.1 (Jan 2012): 53. Print.

Melis, Liesbeth. Parasite Paradise: A Manifesto for Temporary Architecture and Flexible Urbanism. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers/SKOR, 2003. Print.

 

THESIS 4:

Despite being the seat of government, Washington, D.C, by its planning and design, is the most European-like of all American cities.

SOURCES:

Braunfels, Wolfgang. Urban Design in Western Europe: Regime and Architecture, 900-1900. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1988. Print.

Gosling, David, and Maria-Cristina Gosling. The Evolution of American Urban Design: A Chronological Anthology. London: Wiley-Academy, 2003. Print.

“Original Plan of Washington, D.C. (Imagination): American Treasures of the Library of Congress.” Original Plan of Washington, D.C. (Imagination): American Treasures of the Library of Congress. The Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

Southworth, Michael, and Peter L. Owens. The Evolving Metropolis: Studies of Community, Neighborhood and Street Form at the Urban Edge. Berkeley, CA: U of California at Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 1992. Print.

“The 1901 Plan for Washington D.C.” The 1901 Plan for Washington D.C.University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

United States Park Service. “The L’Enfant and McMillian Plans.” National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

 

THESIS 5:

Cuban architecture largely remains stagnant under a stale, socialist order, unable to escape the aesthetics of its Colonial-baroque past, and modernize into the 21st century.

SOURCES:

Carley, Rachel. Cuba: 400 Years of Architectural Heritage. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1997. Print.

Carranza, Luis E., Fernando Luiz Lara, and Jorge Francisco Liernur. Modern Architecture in Latin America: Art, Technology, and Utopia. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Connors, Michael W., Néstor Martí, and Ricardo Porro. Havana Modern: 20th-century Architecture and Interiors. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Obregon, Jessica. Cuba: Architecture and the Social Order. Digital image.Surface.syr.edu. Syracuse University, Dec. 2014. Web. Sept. 2015.

“The Architectural League of New York | The Architecture of the Cuban Revolution.” The Architectural League of New York | The Architecture of the Cuban Revolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

“Tour the Architecture of Cuba Through Early 1900s Photos.” Curbed National. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

 

A Change in Architecture Theses

Thesis #1: Urban cities have created environmental issues that make them vulnerable to uncontrolled circumstances.

Pelling, M. (1967). The vulnerability of cities: natural disasters and social resilience. London: Earthscan Publications. (2003)

Smith, D. L. (2011). Environmental issues for architecture . John Wiley & Sons,.

Downton, Paul F. (2009). Ecopolis: Architecture and Cities for a Changing Climate. Springer Netherlands, 2009

Professor Ian War (2004). Energy and Environmental Issues for the Practising Architect. Thomas Telford Publishing

Stamatine Th. Rassia, Panos M. Pardalos(2014) Cities for Smart Environmental and Energy Futures “Impacts on Architecture and Technology”, Springer; 2014 edition (August 13, 2013)

Gasparini, Paolo, Manfredi, Gaetano, Asprone, Domenico (2014). Resilience and Sustainability in Relation to Natural Disasters: A Challenge for Future Cities. Springer 2014

Kammerbauer, M. (2013), “Schismo-urbanism’: cities, natural disaster, and urban sociology”. Disasters, 37: 401–419. Wiley Libary

Thesis #2: Japanese architecture has been restricted due to the limited land space.

Lazarin, Michael. “Phenomenology Of Japanese Architecture: En (Edge, Connection, Destiny).” Studia Phaenomenologica 14.(2014): 133-159. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

Inoue, Mitsuo, 1918-. Space In Japanese Architecture. New York: Weatherhill, 1985.

Kokusai Kōryū Kikin, et al.. Japan 2000: Architecture And Design for the Japanese Public. Munich: Prestel Verlag , 1998.

Shinozawa, Kenta (2006). “Structure of Natural Environment and Topography envisioned in the Development Process of Senri New Town”. Journal of The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture (1340-8984), 69 (5), p. 817.

Nemoto, Tetsuo (2008). “Transitions of Factors in Planning and Design Process in the Realization of Tama New Town Development Plan Based upon the Natural Topography”. Journal of The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture (1340-8984), 71 (5), p. 801.

Lippit, Seiji M. Topographies of Japanese Modernism. New York, NY: Columbia UP, 2002.

Thesis #3: Over the years, architecture design has stopped evolving to a point where it creates a sense of restriction and replication.

Adam Robert. (2012) The Globalisation of Modern Architecture: The Impact of Politics, Economics and Social Change on Architecture and Urban Design since 1990. Cambridge Scholars Publishing

Kenneth, Frampton. (2007) The Evolution of 20th Century Architecture: A Synoptic Account. Springer Vienna Architecture; 1 edition

Prudon, Theodore H.M.( 2008) Preservation of Modern Architecture. Wiley 2008

Siegel, Curt (1962). Structure and Form in Modern Architecture. Crosby Lockwood & Son; 1st US Edition 1st Printing edition (1962)

Blundell Jones, Peter; Canniffe, Eamonn (2007).Modern architecture through case studies, 1945-1990. Elsevier/Architectural Press

Derek, Avery (2003). Modern architecture. London, Chaucer Press


5 Theses: Steph Rakiec and Dave Ackerman

Thesis #1: Compact city living can become the sustainable design of the future.

Jenks, M., Elizabeth Burton, and Katie Williams. The Compact City: A   Sustainable Urban Form? London: E & FN Spon, 1996. Google Books. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

Easthope, Hazel, and Bill Randolph. “Governing the Compact City: The Challenges of Apartment Living in Sydney, Australia.” Housing Studies 24.2 (2009): 243-59. Web.

Shammin, Md R., et al. “A Multivariate Analysis of the Energy Intensity of Sprawl Versus Compact Living in the U.S. for 2003.” Ecological Economics 69.12 (2010): 2363-73.

Fulcher, Merlin. “Marc Vlessing: ‘Detailed Design can make Compact Living Work’.” The Architects’ Journal (2015)

Little, Matthew. “Is Compact Living Up to its Promise?” Third Sector.307 (2003): 5.

Roo, Gert de, and Donald Miller. Compact Cities and Sustainable Urban Development: A Critical Assessment of Policies and Plans from an International Perspective. Burlington, VT; Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate, 2000.

 

Thesis #2: City planning with urban landscapes in mind helps improve the quality of urban life.

Saelen, Arne, and LandsKap Design. Urban Landscapes. Barcelona: Loft, 2012.

Sargolini, Massimo, and SpringerLink (Online service). Urban Landscapes: Environmental Networks and Quality of Life. 1. Aufl.; 1 ed. Milano: Springer Milan, 2013.

Fitzpatrick, Kevin M., and Mark La Gory. Unhealthy Places: The Ecology of Risk in the Urban Landscape. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Hitchmough, James. Urban Landscape Management. Sydney: Inkata Press, 1994.

Losantos, Agata, et al. Urban Landscape: New Tendencies, New Resources, New Solutions. Barcelona, Spain: Loft Publications, 2007.

Liu, Li, and Lei Xu. “Discussion on the Urban Landscape Design Considering the Human Activities.” Applied Mechanics and Materials 584-586 (2014): 617.

 

Thesis #3:  Designing architecture and furniture together can create adaptable compact spatial environments.

Coyle, Colin. “Design in Motion: Final 1 Edition.” Sunday Times: 14. 2003.

Williamson, Gayle A. Yudina, Anna. Furnitecture: Furniture that Transforms Space. 140 Vol. Library Journals, LLC, 2015.

Tokuda, Hideyuki. “Smart Furniture: A Platform for Context-Aware Embedded Ubiquitous Applications”.

Riley, Paula, and Kenneth V. Stevens. “Shape adaptable and renewable furniture system.” U.S. Patent No. 5,775,778. 7 Jul. 1998.

Sotheby’s (Firm). Sotheby’s Concise Encyclopedia of Furniture. 1st ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1989.

Li, Yan. “Folding Art Conforms to Small Spatial Furniture Design”.

Blakemore, Robbie G. History of Interior Design & Furniture: From Ancient Egypt to Nineteenth- Century Europe. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J: J. Wiley & Sons, 2006.

 

Thesis #4: Adaptive reuse helps create cost effective and sustainable architecture by transforming and retrofitting old buildings for new uses.

Boschmann, E. E. and Gabriel, J. N. (2013), “Urban sustainability and the LEED rating system: case studies on the role of regional characteristics and adaptive reuse in green building in Denver and Boulder, Colorado.” The Geographical Journal, 179: 221–233.

Bullen, Peter A., and Peter E.D. Love. “The Rhetoric of Adaptive Reuse or Reality of Demolition: Views from the Field.” The Rhetoric of Adaptive Reuse or Reality of Demolition: Views from the Field. Elsevier Publishing Co., 9 Apr. 2010. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

Corral, Andrea. “Repurposing Old Buildings More Satisfying than Knocking them Down.” Las Vegas Business Press 31.29 (2014)ProQuest. Web. 6 Sep. 2015.

Carroon, Jean. “P.7-42; 47-55.” Sustainable Preservation: Greening Existing Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010. N. pag. Print.

KERSTING, JESSICA. “INTEGRATING PAST AND PRESENT: THE STORY OF A BUILDING THROUGH ADAPTIVE REUSE.” Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2006. OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center. 06 Sep 2015.

Rabun, J. Stanely. “Structural Analysis of Historic Buildings.” Google Books. John C. Wiley & Sons, Inc., n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

 

Thesis #5: Although net zero design is high in cost, buildings that generate their own energy save more in energy spending than they cost to build.

Alter, Lloyd. “Net Zero Energy Building Certification Finally Defines What Net Zero Really Means.” TreeHugger. MNN Holding Company, LLC, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 05 Sept. 2015.

Braham, William W. “Re(De)fining Net Zero Energy: Renewable Emergy Balance in Environmental Building Design.” Libraries.psu.edu. Elsevier Publishing Co., Jan. 2012. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

Charron, Rémi, and Andreas Athienitis, PhD. “Modeling, Design, and Optimization of Net-Zero Energy Buildings.” (2015): n. pag. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 2006. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

Gray, Meredith, and Jay Zarnikau. “Getting to Zero.” Energy, Sustainability and the Environment (2011): 231-71. US Department of Energy, Sept. 2009. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

Hootman, Thomas, AIA, LEED. “Net Zero Energy Design.” Google Books. John C. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013. Web. 06 Sept. 2015.

Winters, Steven. “Net Zero Energy Buildings.” Net Zero Energy Buildings. National Institute of Building Sciences, 16 Dec. 2014. Web. 05 Sept. 2015.