Apr 17

Getting the Community involved in Bullying Prevention

Bullying is something that can be found on just about any coming-of-age movie or television show. It is a topic that is often shared one a meme on social media, especially on Facebook. It is also seen in the hallways of schools on posters that say “zero tolerance for bullying.” Bullying is often talked about in broad conversations with some people saying that one should teach their kids to toughen up and face the bully head on. They believe that bullying is not going to stop and bullies must be dealt with. While others say that children need to be taught to not bully others and that suggesting that simply toughening up those who are bullied is putting the problem squarely on the victim. However, bullying is something that is more complicated than the two sides readily admit to. There are programs that could reduce or possibly eliminate bullying in schools. The Olweus Program is one such program that society could look to alleviate the problem of bullying.

The affect that bullying can have on a young person is profound.  It can hurt their self-worth, diminish their self-esteem, give them an overall sense of hopelessness. John Halligan’s son Ryan Halligan committed suicide after years of being bullied (Frontline, 2008). His peers picked on his lack of athletic skills and tried to humiliate him repeatedly. A lot of the bullying occurred on-line. The bullying caused him to withdraw from his family which in turn lessened his chances of getting help.

John Halligan admits that there were signs that he missed that could have allowed him to step in to help his son. I believe that this is where the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program could be of great importance. The Olweus Program is designed to prevent bullying in elementary, middle, and high school. It has three stated goals; reduce existing bully/victim problems, prevent new bully/victim problems, and improve peer relations in schools (Limber, 2004). These goals cover more than the “zero tolerance for bullying” policies that some high schools employ by delving in to the problem of bullying rather than just the symptom. The Olweus Program sees committees being formed to coordinate school-wide policies and activities to ensure continuity amongst school districts. A part of the program that I think would be most helpful is involving the community and having regular meetings to keep parents and students abreast of where the program stands on with its goals. The program seeks to educate the community, parents, and students on how they can help with the problem of bullying.

Bullying is an issue that has haunted society for so long. It has been a problem that is often talked about in general terms but not always taken seriously. Although bullying prevention efforts have been underway for such a long time, the task has become more difficult with the prevalence of social media. Therefore, it is important to have programs like the Olweus Prevention Program to reduce and prevent bullying. Schools must dig to the root of bullying to prevent it. Society must continue to educate people on signs of bullying and how they intervene. It will take the whole community to extinguish bullying.


Frontline. (2008, January 22). Interviews with John Halligan. Retrieved April 06, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kidsonline/interviews/halligan.html (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)

Limber, Susan P.. Implementation of the Olweus bullying prevention program in American schools: lessons learned from the field. Bullying in American schools: a social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention. Espelage, Dorothy L. and Susan M. Swearer, eds. Mahwah, NJ. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004. 0805845593. Ch. 17. pp. 351-363

Apr 17

Social Change in the Society


Social change is the transformation of the social order in the community by making adjustments and variations to social institutions, behavior, and relations. It involves social evolution where the society makes amendments to traditional societal norms leading to the necessary change. However, the modification of the developmental psychology is crucial in ensuring that the necessary change is successful. It results from various factors, which support the change making it inevitable. -Social change leads to increased awareness and more understanding due to the presence of more information in the community, which enables people to make informed decisions based on the scenario at hand. There is also improved civic participation attributed to change in the attitude of the public, which motivates them to correct instances of injustice (Cohen, 2011). According to psychology, social change begins with the personal change, which leads to commitment and motivation needs to undertake group and community change in general.

Community social change entails transformative change, cultural change, and organizational change. Transformative change involves making amendments based on plans in the community. The building blocks of social change include various crucial factors that need to be fulfilled to achieve the required change. The first component is transformative change. It involves addressing of pressing and sustainability issues and challenges such as loss of biodiversity in the society and climatic changes. To ensure the success of this component, the social and cultural systems need to be amended to enable the transition to sustainable humanity civilization. It is done through the application of practical knowledge and experience that will facilitate the transformative change.   Another critical component of social change is engagement and participation.

Members of the community need to be involved in the formulation of the modification policies to ensure collaboration among the parties involved. Through the involvement of people in the society in creating a sustainable future, they become committed and motivated in pursuing the required social change. Environmental education and learning are also important in ensuring behavioral change compliance. Through education, people obtain valuable information that encourages people to think keenly of the necessary change and get involved in the change process. The vision of the change program is shared among the participants that allow them to become involved in the change process leading to the realization of the change (Sharan, 2004). A combination of the education and applied foresight identifies threats to the sustainability of the program enabling them to take advantage of current opportunities thus achieve the desired plans and goals.

Social change is facilitated through social research. Social research involves members of the community in collecting information from the society that requires implementing changes in their policies, thinking and approach in life. It requires innovative methods that determine strategies that will be successful in realizing the required change. These research programs are based on specific problems facing the community to identify the needs and wants of the community. It leads to customized policies and approaches that will address the issues identified thus leading to real change. The first step in social research involves analysis of the community in question. Information and full details of the community are examined to determine the problems in that society that needs to be rectified and changed to achieve an operational society (Unkelbach, 2013). The policies implemented are customized to suit the changing requirements of the community. Social research allows the social change strategies to be sustainable. It is because the change is evidence based leading to informed decision-making in the development of the modification structures and strategies.


Cohen, G. (2011). Social Psychology and Social Change. Science334(6053), 178-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1212887

Sharan, M. (2004). Social Change and the Self-Concept. The Journal Of Social Psychology92(2), 325-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2004.9923121

Unkelbach, C. (2013). Social Psychology – Change and Consistency. Social Psychology44(1), 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000135


Apr 17

Physical Attractiveness Stereotype — Amendment Needed?

We’ve all heard the saying “don’t judge a book by its cover”, and while that may be true, it’s often difficult to ignore physical characteristics when meeting new people. The first piece of information that we receive when meeting someone new is his or her looks, which is why we are prone to be influenced by physical attractiveness. This notion is called primacy effect (Schneider et. al., 2012). Try to think back to a social event that you attended recently where you were introduced to new people, and think about your initial impressions of them. I think it would be difficult for us to have based a first impression on somebody’s personality rather than his/her looks.

When you thought back on a particular social event, did you feel like you favored some people over others? Were these favored people more attractive? I think we all would like to believe that we don’t care about looks, or that we don’t make conclusions about a person based on their looks. But unfortunately, this phenomenon is quite a regular response. People tend to associate good looks with other good qualities about the person (Schneider et. al., 2012). A study found that attractive people are expected to be better people – more sensitive, sexually responsive, interesting, and sociable. These common beliefs underlie what’s called the physical attractiveness stereotype. This is good news for individuals who are ‘better looking’, but not so much for others who do not fit this category. When two individuals, one good-looking and the other not, with similar resumes apply for a position, employers generally prefer the more attractive applicant, since they perceive that they will be better employees.

Even though this often seems to be the case for more attractive individuals, I have had experiences that are just the opposite of this stereotype. This is not to say that I’m calling myself America’s (or Armenia’s) next top model – but I feel I am on the more attractive spectrum. I like pampering myself, dressing nicely and applying makeup, not to please anyone else, but because that’s how I like to see myself. When I attend public seminars or talks and meet people there, I always get talked down to and feel like they dumb down their conversation when I am being addressed. When I tell them that I study at Penn State, or when I start talking about a topic passionately and knowledgably, I see a perplexed expression on their faces. I think this is a prevalent opinion in this part of the world – that pretty women, or women who look like they’ve taken some time to look presentable, are usually ‘dumb blondes’, or only care about their looks. This has particularly been an issue for me in the workplace. A couple of years ago when I applied for a job at an online based news agency in Armenia (Civilnet), my interviewer was not taking me seriously, and thought that the only reason I was there was to be on TV, when in fact I was applying to be a writer for their column on political issues in Syria. When I gave him my portfolio of my writing, I recognized that same perplexed visage.

Although I think that the physical attractiveness stereotype is in fact a phenomenon that does occur, I feel like it should take into consideration how attractive women are perceived in society sometimes. What do you think?

Thank you for reading!

Hilda Yacoubian


Schneider, F. W., Gruman, J. A., and Coutts, L. M. (2012). Applied Social Psychology: Understanding and Addressing Social and Practical Problems (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Apr 17

Lesson 12

This week we focused on bullying; specifically, cyber bullying. It is sad how much society has misperceived bullying and has brushed it off as if it does not exist, or even that it is okay. Agaston, Kowalski and Limber (2007) found, as a result of their studies, that more girls recognized cyber bullying compared to boys and they felt that schools were not very helpful in dealing with cyber bullying. Also from our readings, I was shocked that some parents felt it was natural to be picked on and that it builds character. We must all stand up for ourselves but it is not okay for an individual to continuously pick on, bully or threaten someone.

What is really sad is that at one point if you were being bullied at school you could at least leave the drama there and be “safe” within your home. Unfortunately, with social media and cell phones in this day and age, this bullying can be never ending. Bullying can follow people where ever they go because of the cyber age.

Reading the article about John Halligan and his son was very sad. He felt that he should have known and done more to assist when his son Ryan confided in him (Frontline, 2007). The kids picking on him didn’t not realize how much they were hurting someone and just thought it was a joke. Unfortunately, that “joke” did not end well.

Limber, describes The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program main goals as first; to reduce bullying problems at all school ages, not just within the school but also outside of school; second, the next is to prevent bulling issues; lastly, to improve relations between students in school (2004, p. 353). I enjoyed this intervention because it really focused on getting everyone involved to stop bullying and making people aware that it exists. Having parents, teachers and student all involved with the prevention and reduction of bullying is very important, I believe, in making a difference. I have seen people being picked on in school and teachers seem afraid to get involved.

I hope that more people become aware of this issue so that feelings are not hurt and lives are not lost.


Agatston, P. W., Kowalski, R., & Limber, S. Student’s Perspectives on Cyber Bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health. 41(6, Supplement 1). Dec. 2007. Pp. S59-S60

Frontline: Interview (2007, October 19) Growing Up Online. Retrieved from URL. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kidsonline/interviews/halligan.html

Limber, Susan P. Implementation of the Olweus bullying prevention program in American schools: lessons learned from the field. Bullying in American schools: a social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention. Espelage, Dorothy L. and Susan M. Swearer, eds. Mahwah, NJ. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004. 0805845593. Ch. 17. pp. 351-363


Apr 17

Be the Change

When I think of bullying so many things come to mind. From the loss of victims due to suicide to the being told “they are sad on the inside and are just taking it out on you” statement. I think what disturbs me most about that statement is it validates what they are doing and almost gives the air of “well it happens and it’s not okay what they are doing but you have to deal with it because they are sad.” When did it become acceptable to be sad and thus mistreat others? “Social cognition” means the process of thinking about ourselves and other people” (PSU World Campus, 2017). There are studies now that reflect that victims show difficulty in social cognition but have high scores in moral cognition (Gini, 2006). Moral cognition is the understanding of moral emotions and making the right choices because they are ethical and treat others in a positive manner (Gini, 2006). Studies go on to show that bullies have reasonable and appropriate scores in social cognition, but unlike their victims they are morally disengaged (Gini, 2006). So here we are with the problem they are aware of others and what they are doing but they don’t seem to feel bad or care because they are morally disengaged. I believe this is not due to a psychological lacking or syndrome typically but to a learned behavior. While gender does not seem to discriminate who is a bully, I think we should consider a few small issues that we are doing and have long been done that can be contributing to this moral disengagement. I can remember even as a small girl adults telling me that “he likes you is why he picks on you.” I honestly now as an adult with a better understanding and empathy for the situation am disgusted by this comment. Since when was it okay to teach our children that it is okay to show someone you have this awareness of them and because you are sorting out your feelings you can hurt others? Do not tell a little girl or little boy for that matter that someone likes them because they are picking on them. I believe this fosters the position for the future that those children will accept abuse or act it out themselves because it is socially acceptable at a young age. “Chronic victims suffer from anxiety, depression, and suicide and may ultimately resort to counterattack, which can include the use of weapons” (Black, Weinles, Washington, 2010).  Why not start from the beginning and tell them no that is not okay to hurt you and talk to the other child and make it stop. In today’s world we must be vigilant in teaching kindness. With there being so much hurt in the world we can best intervene in the beginning by not just saying no but being proactive and practicing acts to “pass it forward,” being humble and kind to others, and if you like someone do something nice for them. We must teach our children to stand up and say no to bad behavior by reaching out to some adult they trust for help. That adult must completely follow through as well and make sure the issues have been addressed. Otherwise there can be severe consequences. But most importantly start the good and be the good. As Martin Luther King Jr. once said, “Life’s most persistent and urgent question is, “what are you doing for others?” (The King Center, 2013).



Black, S., Weinles, D., & Washington, E. (2010, May 11). Victim Strategies to Stop Bullying. Retrieved April 09, 2017, from http://journals.sagepub.com.ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu/doi/abs/10.1177/1541204009349401

Gini, G. (2006). Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: what’s wrong? Aggressive Behavior, 32(6), 528-539. doi:10.1002/ab.20153

Pennyslvania State University World Campus, 2017. PSYCH 424 Lesson 12: Relationships/Everyday Life. Retrieved from https://psu.instructure.com/courses/1834710/modules/items/21736698.

The King Center. (2013, March 26). MLK Quote of the Week: ‘Life’s Most Persistent and Urgent Question’ Retrieved April 09, 2017, from http://www.thekingcenter.org/blog/mlk-quote-week-lifes-most-persistent-and-urgent-question



Apr 17

Applied Social Psychology in Our Daily Lives

Social psychologists agree that the research findings in the field can be very helpful when they are applied to our own lives (Nelson A., 2017). Social psychology can be used in different areas of our lives such as, our way of thinking, relationships (personal and professional), physical and mental health etc. At the center of all these, it’s human social cognitive system interacting with everyday situations. What are some ways that we can use applied social psychology to better our everyday lives? I am sure that we all can work on ourselves and improve different areas of our lives. Some of us have relationship issues, whether personal or professional and we can always use findings from applied social psychology research to improve the said relationships. I had mentioned Social cognitive system initially and how it interacts with our everyday real situations which brings me to the question of what is Social Cognition?

Social cognition means the process of thinking about ourselves and other people. According to Allport (1985) social cognition is a major idea in social psychology attempting to understand how our thoughts, personal feelings and behavior of individuals are all influenced by the actual, imagined and or implied presence of others (Nelson A., 2017). Our minds are designed for hot action-oriented cognition rather than cold. What that means is that, it’s better to think less and act quickly in an emergency rather than analyzing the situation and risk the consequences of not responding swiftly. The “hot and “cold” action-oriented cognition is another example of a basic characteristic of human cognition that I personally find very interesting. It has been proven that applied social psychology can be used to better our relationships with others. Some of us have issues with our personal relationships, whether it be with our significant others, siblings or our boss and associates at work.

Given how critical our personal relationships are to our happiness, how we can improve the quality of all our relationships? Based on research evidence five practices can be used to nurture our personal relationship with our significant others. According to research listening to our partner we validate their importance to us and increasing the relationship bond with him or her. Compliment is also very important in our relationships, and it increases the closeness of our relationship with our partner. It is very important to notice our spouse and telling her or him what we have noticed shows our interest and can enhance our relationship bond. One thing that we want to steer clear of is social comparison. Social comparison can be very toxic to our happiness, so when we see someone excelling at work for example, we would want to celebrate and congratulate them on their achievements. Lastly, we need to unplug and spend more time with our partner. According to research we spend average of 53 hours a week plugged in to some sort of device (Holder M., 2017).

According to social psychology jealousy is a major issue in our personal relationships and one thing that causes jealousy is attraction. While we have learned that opposites attract, that is only true in short term relationships. In long term relationships, we tend to look for a partner that is like ourselves. In social psychology that is explained as similar-to-me-effect. An example of this effect can be seen not only in our personal lives but it is evident that it also exists in our workplace as well. The “Similar to Me” effect refers to a well-researched tendency of interviewers and supervisors to favor those individuals who are similar to them. Put simply, people are attracted to candidates with similar senses of humor, similar conversational styles, even similar physical appearances (Cliff H., 2011).

In conclusion, it is safe to say that applied social psychology is used in our everyday lives. According to Social Cognition our thoughts and personal feelings and behavior of individuals are all influenced by the actual, imagined and or implied presence of others. Moreover, we tend to use social psychology to better our personal relationships in our personal and professional lives. For example, the evidence of similar-to-me-effect can be seen almost everywhere from workplaces to our personal individual lives. when people must think about how to communicate with another person it becomes a cognitive drain or overload that makes the relationship more work than it is possibly worth. It is more common than not to see those with knowledge of applied social psychology use what they’ve learned from research and studies to better their personal and professional lives.


Allport, A. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.). Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, 3rd ed., pp. 1-46). New York: Random House.

Cliff H., Weddedness, (2011, October 7). Similar to Me. Retrieved April 8, 2017, from www.weddedness.com

Holder M., Psychology Today, (2017, February 5). Five Simple Steps to Better Relationships. Retrieved April 8, 2017, from www.psychologytoday.com

Nelson, A. (2017). Lesson 12. Applied social psychology: Relationships / Everyday life. Presented on the PSYCH 424 course content site lecture at the Pennsylvania State University.

Apr 17

Is Jealousy Healthy or Problematic in the Nature of Relationships?

         Allport (1985) conceptualizes social cognition as, “the process of thinking about ourselves and other people to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.”  Interpersonal magnetism is fueled by a strong desire for tête-à-tête.  Anticipation of favorable experiences sparks excitement while enduring relations with your significant other.  All of a sudden, partner infidelity may come on as a surprise during your relationship.  In other words, deep feelings for your companion may stimulate a strong emotional response that many of us are familiar with.  Jealousy can be experienced at different intensities depending on the situation.  In fact, desirous feelings could promote relationship quality.  For instance, one of the partners may respond to jealousy as being a direct threat to the relationship in which they value their relationship enough to protect it.  Except that is not always the case in most relationships affected by jealous emotions.  Many similar instances are influenced by misunderstanding a situation or failing to emphasize the importance of communication between partners.

        Most relationships experience three distinct types of jealousy including – reactive, anxious, and possessive (Pfeiffer & Wong, 2007).   These forms are distinguished between whether they reside with emotional, cognitive, or behavioral attributions.  John Wiley (2007) explored relations between different types of jealousy, as well as self and partner perceptions of relationship quality.  He defined Reactive Jealousy as, “the degree to which individuals experience negative emotions, such as anger and upset, when their mate is or has been emotionally or sexually unfaithful (Wiley, J., 2007).”  Furthermore, Anxious Jealousy is when a partner creates false perceptions and images in their head in which they begin feeling distrustful or worried.  Finally, Possessive Jealousy involves an individual taking excessive measures in order to prevent their partner from socializing with anyone of the opposite sex, and forbidding them to socialize with others.  According to Buunk’s typology, reactive jealousy relies on emotional  aspects, anxious jealousy consists of cognitive elements, and possessive jealousy is attributed to behavioral components (Buunk & Dijkstra, 2006).  Relatively, Andersen et al. (1995) discovered that cognitive jealousy negatively impacts relational satisfaction.  Whereas, Pfeiffer and Wong (1989) specified emotional jealousy to be positively associated to love.  Determining relationship quality should always take into consideration both partners’ feelings toward how they feel, and how their partner feels, engaging in their interpersonal connection.

          Relationship quality is determined by interaction between two partners.  Communication between each other is a key component for maintaining an open and sound relationship.  Many people are too invested in wanting to just express how they perceive a situation, and will disregard how their partner feels.  In a relationship, one of the best things I have learned is that there are always three sides to a story – their side, your side, and the real side.  Also, do not try to discuss a tense topic unless you are both rational enough to respectfully listen to each other.  Relatively, jealousy affects the content of the communication (what they communicate), as well as the type of communication they engage in (how they communicate) (Wiley, J., 2007).

         High levels of intimacy and affection is associated with how well you and your partner respects the others’ feelings, understand each other, refrain from negative sources of jealousy, and be a companion to your significant other.  Do not try to compete or evoke feelings of jealousy in your partner to cover your own insecurities.  Take into account that you are your partner are a team and are in this together.  If you both want to keep your commitment, then refrain from problematic experiences, and rather enhance your relationship quality.

        Do you ever experience jealousy in your relationship?  What are some ways that you strive to improve the quality of your relationship?  If you are not in a relationship, what are some things you would want to try for relationship satisfaction?

Thanks for reading!

Barelds, D. P. H., Barelds-Dijkstra, P. (2007). Relations between different types of jealousy and self and partner perceptions of relationship quality. Clinical Psychology and Psychopharmacology. Retrieved April 8, 2017 from


Lesson 12 Commentary (n.d.). Relationships/Everyday Life. Retrieved April 8, 2017 fromhttps://psu.instructure.com/courses/1834710/modules/items/21736698

Apr 17

Do Something

Many times in our society, we are faced with situations where if only we would have said something or intervened it could have prevented something tragic from happening. This has been the case in so many situations in life however; people choose not to get involved. One concept that we learned in our lesson that may bring some insight is the bystander effect. The bystander effect is when multiple people witness an emergency situation and do not intervene. (Gruman, J. A., Schneider, F. W., & Coutts, L. M. (2012).  The ability to intervene and call for help could help a save a life.


I had a friend who went through something very tragic where the bystander effect did not work in her favor. My friend lived in a very sketchy neighborhood in the city. She worked the early shift at work, which required her to leave out of the house very early in the morning when it was still dark outside. One day she went to leave out of the house for work, which was very normal and typical for her and proceeded out the front door. On the way to get in her car, two guys ran up to her and grabbed her covering her mouth and confining her so that she could not get loose. She squirmed and tried her best to fight her way out of the situation but they managed to hold her down enough to throw her into their van. While this was going on there were several neighbors who saw and heard what was going on but did not choose to intervene. They also had a diffusion of responsibility where the neighbors didn’t want to say anything because they assumed the other would and they didn’t want to risk getting involved and something bad happening to themselves. Eventually, she was able to escape and now she is a living testimony offering hope and encouragement for those who have experienced trauma in that nature.


Overall, if the neighbors would have intervened, the outcome of the situation would have probably been totally different. I guess you have to consider you own safety as well but never assume that someone is going to do something always take precautionary measures and call the police if a situation looks to dangerous.



Gruman, J. A., Schneider, F. W., & Coutts, L. M. (2012). Applied social psychology: understanding and addressing social and practical problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Apr 17

How much do looks actually matter?

We hear this our whole lives; looks don’t matter, it is what is on the inside that counts! But how true is this notion? It seems people like to believe this is true, but will simultaneously turn someone down or immediately judge them for being unattractive. I agree that looks should not matter, and a person’s character should be measured by what they do, not what they look like. Unfortunately, this is not always what ensues even by people with good intentions. Generally, good-looking people date other good-looking people, and unattractive people date others in their own “league.” In the more rare instances where an attractive person is romantically linked with an unattractive person, people will poke fun and wonder how the unattractive individual managed to get with someone who is good-looking. So why do people continue to say, looks don’t matter?

Jay Z and Beyonce are arguably one of the most famous couples in entertainment. Many people tend to make jokes in regard to how much better looking Beyonce is than her spouse. They are an exception to the general trend of equal-attractiveness couples, and are also a great example of how people find the attractive-unattractive duo to be “odd.”

Physical attractiveness comes with unquestionable benefits, and not just getting free drinks at bars. Obviously unequal treatment based on appearance is not fair, but it is the blunt truth. Attractive individuals are generally thought to be “better” people based on the idea that they are more sensitive, sexually responsive, interesting, and sociable. (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, 2012). They also are judged as being more competent and better with adjustment. All of these factors may increase the likelihood of success in many different areas of life. Physical attractiveness theory explains why this behavior occurs, and how there is a general expectation that attractive people will have better qualities than unattractive people (Schneider et al., 2012).

What are the effects of physical attractiveness theory? One example of how this can be problematic, is in employment. Studies have shown that attractive people are preferred in the workplace in comparison to unattractive counterparts. Two people (one attractive, and one unattractive) with the same exact qualifications applying for a job, should be equally considered. However, the interviewer without necessarily realizing it may prefer the more attractive individual solely based on the individual’s appearance. Unattractive people are not only less preferred than attractive people, but are statistically treated unfairly in general. There is evidence of unattractive people being rejected from job advancement, and are even considered to be more capable of engaging in criminal behavior (Schneider et al., 2012).

The biggest issue regarding the effects of physical attractiveness theory is the inaccuracy of judgement towards people. There is no evidence which suggests more attractive people are “better,” but that does not stop employers, and other individuals from perceiving that they are. This cognitive error likely has evolutionary roots, because generally there is a preference for attractive qualities when choosing a mate, reasons of fertility, etc.

So where does all of this come into play when choosing our intimate partners? There are a few explanations that have been developed by researchers regarding the influence of attractiveness in relationships. The matching phenomenon refers to the preference for individuals to choose long term partners that are of close or equal attractiveness (Schneider et al., 2012). Individuals with avoid aiming to high out of fear of rejection, and some may avoid aiming too low because they believe they can find a more suitable match. A study by Van Straaten, Engels, Finkenauer, and Holland (2009) researched the behavior of individuals in the presence of both attractive and unattractive confederates. Individuals confessed being more interested in dating confederates of similar attractivness, and not confederates of higher or lower attractiveness. The results of this study supported the matching phenomenon indicating that this is normally accurate.

So, we can assume with all of this information that looks do in fact matter. That being said, it is important to take your own physical appearance seriously, especially when interviewing for a job, going on a date, etc. While realizing that looks do matter, we should also keep in consideration that someone’s physical appearance is not a reliable indication for understanding the content of their character. One should always make an effort to understand an individual regardless of their appearance, before making potentially inaccurate judgments.



Schneider, F. W., Gruman, J. A., & Coutts, L. M. (2012). Applied social psychology: understanding and addressing social and practical problems. Los Angeles: Sage.

Van Straaten, I., Engles, R. C. M. E., Finkenauer, C., & Holland, R. W. (2009). Meeting your match: How attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 685-697.

Apr 17

One Is The Loneliest Number

According to (Schneider et al, 2012) there are four attachments that adults can have which are secure, preoccupied,fearful, and dismissing. At some point each one of us has participated in one if not all of the above. As adults we are luck enough to find someone to form an attachment whether it be a romantic attachment or a friendly attachment. Even though relationships are tough it is important to form any form of attachment. It is important to form some kind of connection because I have seen people grow old alone. It is the saddest thing I have witnessed. In my field of work I have seen a lot of elderly live out there last days alone with out a friend or loved ones by their sides.

Unfortunately not everyone is meant to get married and have children in that case forming a social group is important to have something to hold on to. As adults get older they become set on there ways and become stubborn and some angry.  But the great thing of getting older is that you also become wiser and truly find what is important to you and by that you can choose individuals who share your philosophy. I have been lucky enough to this point in finding several true friends we call ourselves the wolf pack. A little immature but that how we all are we are responsible when we need to be and we become big kids when were together. All of us are between the ages of 23-26 and are going through similar situations, were finishing school we’re buying homes and progressing.

Having this bond is amazing a group of men going through similar life changing events is great because if one needs advise we’re there to assist. Either by letting them know what worked for us or just by listening. Especially when it come to talking about work. I know a lot of guys say men don’t talk well actually boys don’t talk men converse. We all live busy lives but we try to meet face to face at least once a month over a BBQ or dinner or just a drink and catch up. Forming any kind of bond is key to become a better person and have someone there if the need arises.

Schneider, F. W., Gruman, J. A., & Coutts, L. M. (Eds.). (2012). Applied Social Psychology (Second ed., pp. 351-391). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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