Advocacy Presentation and Submission


All projects must be submitted on Canvas by class time on April 19th.

All project elements must be submitted, included a 1-2 page double-spaced Advocacy Justification paper.

Advocacy Justification


5-7 minutes

Present the elements of your advocacy project as illustrations of an articulation of ideas from your advocacy justification paper (don’t read them). The goal of this presentation is to prove to the audience (the class) that your choices are suitable for the audiences and stated goals of the project.

Advocacy Project Rubric


How do we decide what is right?

In 1948, the United Nations proclaimed a Universal Declaration of Human Rights “as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected….”

In 2000, the United Nations put forth a set of goals for the world to work on together. The aspiration was that these goals would be achieved by 2015. Much progress was made.

Millennium Development Goals


In 2015, the United Nations designated a set of goals to continue its work toward equality and peace.

UN Sustainable Development Goals



Examples of Approaches to Ethical Reasoning


Utilitarianism – Jeremy Bentham

  • Do what produces the greatest overall good for all affected
  • Requires an assessment of the consequences, a forecasting of the outcomes

Measured in various ways:

  • Monetary
  • Human welfare
  • Pleasure or happiness

Maximize net benefits for all foreseeable outcomes

Applying to a case:

What are the likely consequences, good and bad, of each decision?


  • Protect minority from tyranny of the majority
  • Subjectivity
  • Unforeseen consequences
  • Ends justify the means?

Categorical or Duty-based 

Immanuel Kant

  • Determining UNIVERSAL moral duties
  • Do only that which you would want everyone to do, otherwise, there’s a moral duty NOT to
  • Respect people as ends in themselves
  • Duty to obey universal principles:  do not lie, do no harm…
  • Right to be treated with respect: not to be lied to or harmed…

Ideally, ethics is universal and impersonal: do that which everyone must do, no matter who they are or where they’re from.

Applying to a case:

Does it violate anyone’s human rights?


  • Rigidity
  • Consequences DO matter



  • What would a person of good moral character do?
  • Exercise appropriate virtue in every case:  honesty, generosity, justice…

Applicable virtues depend on context:

What is HONEST depends on social traditions, history; context based


  • Relies on judgement
  • Not precise formula
  • Behaviors are believed to be ethical simply because they’ve become “normal”

Ethics of care

Feminist scholarship – Carol Gilligan, Nel Noddings  

  • Interpersonal relationships and care or benevolence as a virtue are central to moral action
  • Shares a great deal with virtue-based: Contextual, responds to limitation of impersonal, objective rules
  • Arises from feminist concerns:  about the quality of human relations rather than duties and rights

Applying to a case:

Do relationships demand special care?  Does violating a “universal” ideal for a relationship amount to “caring?”


  • Not a clear guide
  • Can maintain prejudice

Ethics Intro

Michael Sandel – Justice: What’s a Fair Start?

More Advocacy Examples

Stephen Colbert, Jimmy Kimmel….












Fossil Free PSU









Amy Poehler’s Smart Girls


Op-Ed for renewed attention to boys


Kids with Developmental Disabilities in Crisis Situations


Government Initiatives

Pussy Riot – “I Can’t Breathe”








Basic overview

This is the first paragraph of the vaccination issue brief:

Look at the first endnote:

First and last name, “Title of article,” Title of Journal Volume (number) (year): pages.

^^^This is a hard copy; note: there’s no notation of how to access online.

There is another source in this first endnote:

UNICEF, “Vaccines Bring 7 Diseases Under Control,” available at hevaccin.htm (last accessed May 2013).

This is a website, so we note when the site was accessed for this work because websites can change.



Look at the second endnote:

First and last name, “Title of article,” Title of Journal Volume (number) (year): page it begins, available at _________________.

This is a journal which has made its contents available online. And so, we note the page it begins and where, online, it is available. Because it’s not simply a website, but a downloadable pdf accessed via a website, you needn’t note when it was last accessed.

Take a look at endnote #3 ^^^^^:

Note that it has multiple sources. This is a powerful indicator of the quality of the data:  more than one source notes this. Further, this endnote is used to explain an idea which, if explained in the paper, might disrupt the flow of the point and writing.


This next two paragraphs utilize 3 endnotes:

Endnote  4 uses two sources. The second source, May and Silverman, is used again for Endnote 6 and Endnote 29 below.

Note that Endnote 6 doesn’t use a page number and 4 and 29 do. Use of page number indicates the information comes directly from a particular page. Lack of a page number for endnote 6 indicates this is a summary of ideas from the whole paper. When in doubt, however, use page numbers.

Here’s the original journal article from Thomas May and Ross Silverman:

vaccine may and silverman


When you use the same source(s) consecutively, you may simply use Ibid., “an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem,  which means “in the same place.” If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use ‘Ibid.’ followed by a comma and the new page number(s).”(

When using sources with more than two authors (as above), cite the first listed author followed by “and others” or “et al.” which is Latin for “and others.”



Next, note the way first and subsequent citations are written: 

The first use of a source uses first and last name. Subsequent uses uses only the last name. If the same author is used but for different works, treat that author as  “new” author, citing the author’s full name: