I am happy to report that SOAR 1, the journal of the Society of Americanists, is now live on the web! The inaugural theme is “assessing American Studies.” You can view it in pdf at https://journals.psu.edu/soar/index or in online journal form at: https://issuu.com/soar-journal (which is also where we are offering on-demand printing of bound journals). It is open access.
Dr. Simon J. Bronner, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of American Studies and Folklore at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) at Harrisburg, has been been named the Maxwell C. Weiner Distinguished Visiting Professor of Humanities at Missouri S&T for the upcoming academic year. The visiting professorship was established in 1999 by an estate gift.
Bronner will be collectively hosted between August 2018 and May 2019 by Missouri S&T’s three humanities departments: arts, languages, and philosophy; English and technical communication; and history and political science.
Over the academic year, Bronner will present two public lectures, lead a seminar on campus for early-career faculty in the humanities, and teach one semester-long undergraduate course. He will also be encouraged to participate in S&T’s newly founded Center for Science, Technology, and Society, csts.mst.edu, which brings together scholars from across campus to share ideas about the impact of science and technology upon society, culture and the environment.
Bronner is an American folklorist, ethnologist and historian. A connecting thread of his varied scholarship is on the issue of tradition, especially in relation to modernity, folk culture, and popular culture and creativity.
“The undergirding theme in my work is the interplay between tradition and modernization,” says Bronner. “This inquiry is particularly appropriate for connecting the backgrounds of students from various majors across the university curriculum at Missouri S&T. I try to use scholarship to address timely public issues as demonstrated in several of my recent publications on the discourse of ‘traditional values’ and technology in relation to the rhetoric of progress in American society.”
Bronner’s major scholarly contributions have been in his authorship and editing of over 40 books and monographs on the the topics of material culture and folklife, consumer culture, ethnic studies, ritual and belief, masculinity studies, American roots music, animal-human relations (in practices such as hunting and gaming), and developmental psychology and culture across the life course. He edited the most comprehensive reference work in American folklife studies, Encyclopedia of American Folklife (2006), followed with the reference work Oxford Handbook of American Folklore and Folklife Studies for Oxford University Press (2018).
During his tenure at Penn State, where Bronner joined the faculty in 1981, he has chaired the American Studies Program, directed the doctoral program in American Studies, founded the Center for Holocaust and Jewish Studies and the Center for Pennsylvania Culture Studies and served as interim director for the School of Humanities. He also has coordinated graduate certificate programs in folklore and ethnography and heritage and museum practice. Most recently, he was scholar-in-residence at the Latvian Academy of Culture in Riga, Latvia, and a Fellow of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation at the Smithsonian Institution.
Bronner holds a Ph.D. in American studies and folklore from Indiana University, a master of arts degree in American folk culture from the Cooperstown Graduate Programs of the State University of New York, and a bachelor of arts degree in political science from Binghamton University.
“We believe Dr. Bronner is an excellent fit for the Weiner Professorship, and his many diverse interests in American studies and culture will appeal to a wide audience on our campus,” says Dr. Kate Drowne, CSTS director, associate dean of academic affairs for the College of Arts, Sciences, and Business, and a professor of English. “Missouri S&T is delighted to have Dr. Bronner join us for this coming school year, and we look forward to welcoming him to the campus community.”
I will be speaking at the Pennsylvania Folklore Symposium, an ideal place to share interests and ideas with others concerned for folklore and folklife studies not only in Pennsylvania, but around the world.
View the preliminary program for the
Pennsylvania Folklore Symposium
Sponsored by the Pennsylvania Center for Folklore, Folk Art PA/Pennsylvania Council on the Arts,
and the Middle Atlantic Folklife Association.
Register online by March 15, 2018 to attend!
If you would like more information or are interested in having an event added to the program, contact the Center staff at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thursday, May 17-Saturday, May 19, 2018
Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg
The Pennsylvania Folklore Symposium will bring together academic and public sector folklorists and students from across the state and region in order to highlight the achievements and issues in the field of folklore, and open a discussion on how to better collaborate and coordinate between institutions and with artists, participants, and creators.
Registration fee includes most meals (see program for complete list of included meals). Affordable on-campus lodgings available.
The “landing site” for the Oxford Handbook of American Folklore and Folklife Studies has gone live today: http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190840617.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780190840617. Two chapters appear now as samples–Mieder on proverbs and De Caro on folktales–and more should be added in the coming weeks (21 of the 43 chapters are now in press). In addition, chapters with the keyword of folklore and folklife can be searched at the Oxford Handbooks Online page of www.oxfordhandbooks.com, which should be available to most of you through your institutional databases (usually under the database of Oxford Reference). The print volume with over 1000 pages will be out in 2019. I can also offer as a preview an open-access essay on “The Challenge of American Folklore to the Humanities” for your reading at http://www.mdpi.com/2076-0787/7/1/17.
On November 14, 2017, I spoke to an “International Folkloristics” seminar at the University of Tartu, Estonia, on “The Practice of Folklore,” a preview of my forthcoming book with the same title. It was videotaped and can be viewed here. The introduction is by Professor Jonathan Roper of the Department of Comparative Folklore; thanks also to Professor Ulo Valk for his invitation and hospitality.
“The core matters of American folklore and folklife studies evident in the literature are on folk groups, bearers, contexts, and genres in face-to-face interaction, with attention to ever-relevant, qualitatively investigated questions of tradition, creativity, imagination, identity, performance, practice, art, and communication. New technology has bred broader field documentation and facilitated “computational folkloristics” with the analysis and mapping of huge amounts of coded material, or “big data.” Whether interpreting the traditions of “virtual” social networks or “real” gatherings, in futuristic corporate offices or around campfires of the past, and indeed among the young or old, folklorists in their scholarship seek answers as a significant contribution to the humanities and social sciences questions of how and why people express, and repeat, themselves.”
Feature article on our efforts at Penn State Harrisburg to preserve and make accessible folk arts: https://harrisburg.psu.edu/news/folk-arts-preserving-pennsylvanias-cultural-past
INTRODUCTION [FOLKSONG ALIVE: THE FIELD COLLECTION OF SAM ESKIN]
Continuing the editing and annotation of folksongs collected by Sam Eskin (1898-1974) begun in volume 38 ( Spring/Fall 2012) of Midwestern Folklore, I present here in Part II [Midwestern Folklore, volume 39, Spring/Fall 2013] a selection of songs with themes of love, violence, and eroticism that filled Eskin’s three notebooks of field-collected material. He put songs that he considered bawdy into a separate notebook and labeled it with a delta symbol used by the Library of Congress to represent risque items. Eskin collected most of these songs immediately after World War II. He quizzed returning soldiers and sailors about their song repertoire and transcribed a number of songs that show interaction with British troops and their bawdy ballad tradition. Concentrating on songs, he filed recitations and folk rhymes, many of them considered obscene at the time, in a separate file. Many of the bawdy songs are still in circulation in the twenty-first century, giving credence to his mission in his Folksong Alive project to show folk song to be a living tradition. Indeed, he predicted that the bawdy song tradition was likely to enjoy new life in college dormitories and fraternity houses as many of the veterans made the move to campus life. As my annotation shows, several of the songs had already been documented in college life before the 1940s when Eskin was doing his recording. Others such as “Bolo’d” and “Shoe and Her Ankle Too” have not been widely documented and have historical significance, especially since much of this material has been omitted, suppressed, or bowdlerized in previous collections (an example is a ribald version of “Our Goodman,” number 69). More so than for the notebooks filled with songs of love and violence, the delta notebook included Eskin’s recollections of texts from his pre-War days in the Merchant Marine, railroading, and ranching.
Eskin’s repertoire drew the attention of the leading scholar of erotica, G. Legman, who included in Roll Me in Your Arms (Randolph 1992, 332) some of the songs Eskin performed for him on a visit to his home in France during the summer of 1955. For Eskin, this folksong corpus came from a man’s world. The songs of love and violence were frequently the domain of women. He found many of his songs of love and violence in the labor camps of the West left over from the New Deal.
Among the performers from whom he recorded the most songs are Indiana -born Myrtle Downing (born Street) and “Uncle” Nate Dye, who apparently had experience working in lumber camps where he learned much of his repertoire. Neither one recorded commercially or went on the festival stage, but they had active roles in the labor camp community of perpetuating a ballad-singing tradition. Eskin’s recordings demonstrate that these tradition-bearers did not memorize set pieces as much as they remembered plots and extended their performances with floating verses. In contrast, Moon Mullican is an example of someone that Eskin recorded who had commercial success as a recording and performing artist, but Eskin documented folk songs in his repertoire such as “Girl I Left Behind Me” that had not made it into his discography. Mullican offered Eskin songs he fondly recalled learning from his parents in his Texas youth.
Eskin found Laura Bradshaw (born Petty) near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and he documented her rich ballad repertoire. There was a sense in his recordings, though, that her performance of ballads of British origin represented a passing tradition. He took a special interest, however, in her songs such as “Coal Black Hair” (no. 39 in this volume) that he thought had a regional vitality if not a national circulation or British origin. More than treating songs as specimens to be placed under glass, Eskin commented on the relation of singers to their songs. Myrtle Downing’s performance of “Forsaken” (no. 42 in this volume) affected him because of her history of being abandoned by lovers. He related to Harry “Haywire Mac” McClintock’s life of adventure and the songs he picked up along the way because he had similar experiences out at sea and on the rails. McClintock had recorded commercially but Eskin had an opportunity to get songs such as “Bolo’d” that would not be released.
Some songs attracted Eskin because of the stories behind them. “Pa Rattin” (no. 51 in this volume) for example, has violent imagery of a family being slaughtered and Eskin wondered if this was a murder ballad based upon true events. The singer did not know if it was, and the family name of “Rattin” was not a familiar one. I present research here that suggests that the song is indeed connected to the murder of a family named “Wratten” in Indiana in 1893. More research is needed on the emergence of the song after the horrific crime was committed but there is evidence of the song’s circulation in oral tradition through the twentieth century. “Buttermilk Hill” (no. 38 in this volume) is one that fascinated Eskin because it was performed as a song about the West but he noted a lineage dating back to an Irish provenance.
Eskin frequently made notes singers’ sources for songs, and used the titles of songs they provided. In the case of “Grandpa Larson’s Song” (no. 45 in this volume), a song that I have identified as “When I Was Young and In My Prime,” retains the name of the source the singer recalled and a sign of the family folklore surrounding the song. In many cases, I filled in the information based upon historical and folkloristic sources. “Our Baby Died” (no. 68 in this volume) might seem out of place among Eskin’s songs, but I have located it within the context of the “cruel joke” series circulating during the 1950s that brought up issues of child abuse and abortion through the veil of humor (see Dundes 1979; Sutton-Smith 1960). In other cases, I have offered possible symbolic meanings for references in the songs (e.g., “My Little Organ Grinder (Rio Rio),” no. 65 in this volume) and social historical information as context (e.g., the Filipino references in “Bolo’d,” no. 60 in this volume). As in the past volume, I indicate my corrections of, or questions about, his transcription of lyrics by placing text within brackets.
The two volumes in which Eskin’s collection has been presented raises a methodological issue about the value of annotation in folkloristic practice. Although I recognize that some folklorists associate annotation with an older historic-geographic methodology, my view is that in modern folkloristics the annotation can open for view perspectives on matters of social process and traditionality of crucial importance in the analysis of the material with which folklorists work. In my annotations, I give conventional attention to origin and diffusion of traditions in addition to matters of variance in folk process. I also note indexing information where available to advance comparative studies of folk song. What I have added frequently is information about the interplay of this material with popular culture and interpretative comments on the performers’ motivations and the symbolic meanings of songs that help explain their function, persistence, and in many cases, disappearance. I have made a case prior to this project that annnotation is a distinctive folkloristic tool in need of continued development, especially to comparative cultural endeavors (Bronner 2006; Bronner 2011, 89-91; see also Oring 1989). The annotation also frequently has as its driving mission to provide insights into processes of oikotypification, hybridization, practice (i.e., the question of why people repeat themselves), social context, and structure (including symbolic and cognitive structures). The Eskin project has convinced me that much work still needs to be done with collections among folklorists that like Vance Randolph’s were once considered “unprintable” or like Eskin’s were not made publicly available. Not just a matter of adding texts to our corpus of folkloristic knowledge, their work in the field, once analyzed, contributes immensely to our understanding of the dynamics of tradition.
Bronner, Simon J. 2006. “Folklorists.” In Encyclopedia of American Folklife, ed. Simon J. Bronner, 422-26. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Bronner, Simon J. 2011. Explaining Traditions: Folk Behavior in Modern Culture. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Dundes, Alan. 1979. “The Dead Baby Joke Cycle.” Western Folklore 33: 145-57.
Oring, Elliott. 1989. “Documenting Folklore: The Annotation.” In Folk Groups and Folklore Genres: A Reader, ed. Elliott Oring, 358-73. Logan: Utah State University Press.
Randolph, Vance. 1992. Roll Me In Your Arms: “Unprintable” Ozark Folksongs and Folklore, Volume I–Folksongs and Music, ed. G. Legman. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.
Sutton-Smith, Brian. 1960. “‘Shut Up and Keep Digging’: The Cruel Joke Series.” Midwest Folklore 10: 11-22.
Daniel Walden and the Jewish Subject in American Studies
Simon J. Bronner, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor of American Studies and Folklore
The Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg
Delivered at the Northeast Modern Language Association meeting, Harrisburg, PA, April 3-5, 2014; Roundtable– “American Jewish Literature: Retrospective and Prospective,” Simon J. Bronner, chair.
This roundtable was originally intended to be a conversation with Daniel Walden, a former president of the Northeast MLA and my Penn State colleague and friend who through his 80s was very much active in scholarship and teaching. He was the oldest professor to teach at Penn State as of fall 2013, with courses on ethnic literature, Jewish literature, and Holocaust literature. He was still productive after turning 91 on August 1; Penn State Press published Chaim Potok: Confronting Modernity Through the Lens of Tradition (2013), which he edited. He showed no signs of slowing down when we first discussed the NeMLA roundtable, and in fact, I worked with him on what would turn out to be his last publication, an entry on Saul Bellow for the Encyclopedia of American Studies. He was excited about the idea of returning to NeMLA and sharing his thoughts on the past and future of American Jewish literary studies. He went into the hospital in October 2013 for what he thought would be a short stint to attend to his kidney function, but he developed pneumonia and other complications, and he passed away November 8, 2013. If he had been here, I would have engaged him to discuss his view of American Jewish literature with which he had been intimately involved as critic, editor, and promoter since the 1950s. I hoped to do this as his younger colleague who regularly interacted with him since 1981; our paths regularly crossed as professors involved in American Studies and Jewish Studies, which incidentally he established at Penn State. I know a conversation with him would have been a grand exchange, not only because of his lively personality and broad-mindedness, but also because he is undoubtedly a major figure in the study of American literature generally. He was founding editor in 1975 of Studies in American Jewish Literature, continuing his leadership for a remarkable 36-year stretch to 2011, and one of the founders of MELUS. He was editor of a landmark anthology of 1974, On Being Jewish: American Jewish Writers from Cahan to Bellow and co-editor in 1969 of On Being Black: Writings by Afro-Americans from Frederick Douglass to the Present. In 1984, he produced an important reference work Twentieth Century American Jewish Fiction Writers for Greenwood, which established a canon of modern Jewish American fiction. On the occasion of his 90th birthday, in 2012 Studies in American Jewish Literature issued a festschrift for him edited by Alan Berger and the American Literature Association’s 2013 Jewish American and Holocaust Literature Symposium was devoted to his work.
Biographies and interviews of him have already been published and I don’t want to turn this roundtable into a memorial service, although we all honor him with our continued work in American Jewish studies. Applying the Jewish adage of “May his memory be a blessing,” my purpose is to review the field of American Jewish literary studies that he helped formulate during the 1960s and 1970s, and to look to the ways that this field evolved in the twenty-first century. I am hardly the first to note the work of Walden and his cohort in Jewish literary studies but what I will propose that an overlooked bridge he built between pre-Millennium and post-Millennium scholars was his adoption of American Studies as a guiding framework for analysis. I want to consider this framework’s relevance as we move past what I consider a crossroads moment in Jewish cultural studies.
During the 1960s, Walden reflected, Jewish American writers were celebrated for their Jewishness in a period of ethnic awareness. In Walden’s words, “When Arthur Miller, Saul Bellow, Jo Sinclair, and Laura Z. Hobson introduced the uniquely Jewish experience to the reading public, the culture was ready for their insights .” Of importance to Walden, these writers “searched the American experience from a Jewish point of view” and presented themselves as Jewish writers. Their entrance into the mainstream and their themes of assimilation separated them from an earlier immigrant generation of writings who wrote of a Jewish ghetto milieu and a search for authenticity, often in religion. The likes of Roth and Malamud in addition to the writers he previously mentioned, Walden opined, showed “how far Jews have moved from the Covenant.” For him, Bellow, Malamud, and Roth set the standard of American Jewish writing come of age. The worry was that they also marked a height from which writing has been in decline ever since. He fretted over pronouncements during the late 1970s by fellow Jewish critics Leslie Fiedler and Irving Howe that as a genre the “American Jewish novel” was dead. Without the drama of immigration and the ghetto, after all, they argued, Jewish writing lost its steam.
With his sociohistorical perspective gained from the rising field of American Studies, he argued that the issue was not of genre, of such great concern to literary scholars, but of context out of which literary expression was used to capture and interpret experience. He predicted an era of change to the end of the twentieth century characterized by “a talented group,” as he described them, including Cynthia Ozick, Norma Rosen, Hugh Nissenson, Dan Wakefield, and “perhaps,” he grudgingly wrote, Woody Allen and Neil Simon. Whereas other critics saw in them great differences that defied continuity, Walden declared that individuality of imagination characterized them. They deal with American Jewish experience in individual ways, he wrote. American Studies at the time was making the case that imaginative literature was not just a reflection of experience, but also affected public action. The images created in literature fused symbols and images into an emotional construct that was on the level of myth. For Walden, if the American Jewish novel was dead, you might as well say kaddish for American Jewish identity and he was not ready from a personal and scholarly perspective to do so, or relegate Jewishness to the Yiddishkeit of the Lower East Side.
Above all in the era of change, Walden was captivated by Chaim Potok (1929-2002), who dealt more with the Covenant and orthodoxy than the others who he had described as moving away from religious themes. Yet Potok’s characters, Walden excitedly proclaimed, were Zwischenmenschen–that is, “between persons” who felt agency to mold rather than inherit identity in the open culture of America. Adding a psychological thread in novels of the period, Potok, Walden thought, came to the forefront of writing about the tension between religion and secularism, tradition and modernity. Potok was a scholar who interpreted his own works, rather than let literary critics provide that service, but Walden’s key role was to extend Potok as a barometer of not just the Jews as Jews, but of American culture and Jews as Americans. Walden after the ethnic focus of On Being Jewish used Potok to provide comparisons to themes of identity and agency, and double consciousness, among African Americans and Chicanos.
Walden’s guiding hand in Studies in American Jewish Literature pushed critics and literary historians to consider Jewish writing as forms of identity formation out of the complex relations of public and private life evident in terms such as mainstream, metropolitan, and popular. He moved interpretation of literature from the immigrant experience to the imaginaries of heritage, including public memory of Holocaust, Israel, and prejudice. With globalization and transnationalism all the rage in the twenty-first century, there emerged a new challenge to the categorization of American in Jewish literature as being exclusive or even irrelevant. In recent conversations, he still held fast to the importance of the idea of America in writing on the Jewish subject. He especially pointed to trends on a spate of writing concerning new Russian immigrants in American Jewish literature and pointed particularly to Andy Furman’s idea of Russification of Jewish American literature. Indicative of his canonical thinking, he sought to identify the best of this lot and wanted to feature authors of Russian Jewish background.
Yet he did not see past the traditional frame of the book in defining literature. My perspective moving past Studies in American Jewish Literature to Jewish Cultural Studies is the decentering and decanonization of the text in the digital era. In Jewish Cultural Studies expressions varied as blogs by orthodox women, folk narratives as legends and jokes, and composed scripts for rituals such Simhat Bat and Yom Hashoah count as literature. Further, the Jewish subject rather than the Jewish writer is in the scope of American Jewish literature, particularly with Jewishness as an appropriated image and identity, evident in complex issues of conversion and Jewish symbolism such as Mona in the Promised Land by Gish Jen (1997) set in suburbia, where the Chinese protagonist who was raised Buddhist is a Jew “by choice” amidst ambivalent “authentic Jews” and her Christian African-American best friend. In such works the representation of Jewishness, rather than the experience of Jews, comes to the fore, and there is every sign that this concern is evident as part of a larger theme of a new era of change characterized by depictions of overlapping, interethnic, and alternative identity explorations within a fragmenting America. But often it is not Jews doing the explorations.
To be provocative and raise discussion here, I will propose that the prospect for American Jewish literature is to redefine itself culturally much as American Studies has. Still there is the question of the American context or frame, especially for a group as mobile as Jews, but the point of the American frame rather than the American community is that it is often constructed by participants with varying degrees of connection to a Jewish past. Along with this interest in the Jewish subject as trope, with different judgments of its coolness by Jews and non-Jews and those in-between, is a rediscovery of uncovered vernacular texts from history analyzed, often multilingually and multivocally, for their rhetorical strategies such as the eye-catching insertion of “A Scattering of Contemporary and Perennial Jokes” in Norton’s Anthology Jewish American Literature (2001). I think Dan Walden would allow, even encourage, critical concern forty years after his On Being Jewish under a heading of On Using Jewish themes of appropriation of Jewishness and a decentered text with the symbolic Jewish subject.
I am happy to announce the launch of an online exhibition on strongmen in history and culture at http://sites.psu.edu/strongman. The exhibition is based upon research I did at the Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sports at the University of Texas and ethnographic work at the Arnold Strongman Classic in Columbus, Ohio. I welcome your comments.