Morán-López**, Espíndola-Cáceres WD*, Vizzachero BS*, Fontanella A, Salinas L, Arana C, Amico G, Pizo M, Morales JM, Carlo TA. (2019) Can network metrics predict vulnerability and species roles in bird-dispersed communities? Not without behavior. Ecology Letters DOI: 10.1111/ele.13439 PDF

González-Castro A, Yang S, Carlo TA (2019). How does avian seed dispersal shape the structure of early successional tropical forests? Functional Ecology 33:229-238.  PDF

Blinn A*, Carlo TA. (2019) Vegetation and population survey of the red-footed booby (Sula sula L.) colony in Mona Island. Caribbean Naturalist 70:1-9 PDF


Porras, MF, De Moraes CM, Mescher MC, Rajotte E, Carlo TA. (2018). A plant virus (BYDV) promotes trophic facilitation in aphids on wheat. Scientific Reports 8:11709  PDF

Morán-López, T, Carlo TA, Amico G, Morales JM. (2018) Diet complementation as a frequency-dependent mechanism conferring advantages to rare plants. Functional Ecology   PDF

Morán-López, T, Carlo TA, Morales, JM. (2018) The role of frugivory in diversity maintenance- a simulation approach. Ecography PDF

Curtze A, Carlo TA, Wenzel J. (2018). The Effects of a Tornado Disturbance and a Salvaged Timber Extraction on the Seed Rain and Recruitment Community of an Eastern Temperate Deciduous Forest. Northeastern Naturalist (in press).


Lugo, AE, Winchell, KM, Carlo, TA. (2017) Novelty in Ecosystems. Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene 3: 259-271. PDF

Almeyda-Díaz E, Odhera PC, Moran H, Iglesias-Prieto R, Carlo TA, LaJeunesse TC, Medina M (2017). Intraspecific and interspecific variation in thermotolerance and photoacclimation in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the Royal Society (B) PDF

Caraballo-Ortiz MA, González-Castro A, Yang S, Carlo TA. (2017) Dissecting the contributions of dispersal and host properties to the local abundance of a tropical mistletoe. Journal of Ecology 105:1657–1667. PDF


Peters V, Carlo TA, Mello MAR, Rice RA, Tallamy DW, Caudill SA, Fleming TH. (2016) Selection of species for Neotropical tree-based agroecosystems, perspectives for decision-making. Bioscience 66:1046-1056. PDF

Carlo TA, Morales JM. (2016) Generalist birds promote tropical forest regeneration and increase plant diversity via rare-biased seed dispersal. Ecology 97:1819-1831. PDF

Herrmann J, Carlo TA, Brudvig L, Damschen E, Orrok J, Levey DJ, Haddad N, Tewksbury JJ. (2016) Connectivity from a different perspective: comparing seed dispersal kernels in connected vs. unfragmented landscapes. Ecology 97:1274-1282. PDF

García D, Carlo TA, Martínez D*. Differential effects of landscapes on seed dispersal for co-occurring plants. (2016): Basic and Applied Ecology 17: 428-437. PDF

Arana C, Carlo TA, Salinas L (2016) Biological soil crust in Peru: first record and description. Zonas Áridas 16(1): 112-119. PDF


Trejo-Torres JC, Caraballo-Ortiz MA*, MA Vives-Heyliger, CW Torres-Santana, W Cetzal-IX, JA Mercado-Díaz, Carlo TA (2015) Rediscovery of Eugenia fajardensis (Myrtaceae), a rare tree from the Puerto Rican Bank. Phytotaxa 191 (1): 154–164. PDF

González-Castro A*, Yang S, Nogales M, Carlo TA (2015) Relative importance of phenotypic trait matching and species’ abundances in determining plant-avian seed dispersal interactions in a small insular community. Annals of Botany Plants7: plv017; doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plv017. PDF


Gleditsch JM*, Carlo TA (2014) Living with aliens: effects of invasive shrub honeysuckles on avian nesting. PLosOne 9(9): e107120. PDF

Carlo TA, Tewksbury JJ (2014) Directness and tempo of avian seed deposition increases emergence of wild chiltepins in desert grasslands. Journal of Ecology 102 (1): 248-255PDF


Yang S, Albert R, Carlo TA (2013) Transience and constancy of interactions in a plant-frugivore network. Ecosphere 4: Article 147, pp. 1-25. PDF

Carlo TA, Flores-Mangual M, Caraballo-Ortiz MA* (2013) Post-dispersal seed predation rates in a Puerto Rican pasture. Caribbean Journal of Science 47: 153-158.

Fricke EC, Simon MJ, Reagan KM*, Haak DC, Levey DJ, Riffell JA, Carlo TA, Tewksbury JJ (2013) When condition trumps location: seed consumption by fruit-eating birds removes pathogens and attractants to seed predators. Ecology Letters 16: 1031-1036PDF

Caraballo-Ortiz* MA, Carlo TA (2013) Resurrection of Dendropemon sintenisii (Loranthaceae): an endemic mistletoe to Puerto Rico. Phytotaxa 82: 1-6. (journal cover)

Carlo TA, García D, Martínez D*, Gleditsch JM*, Morales JM (2013) Where do seeds go when they go far? Integrating distance and directionality of avian seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes. Ecology 94: 301-307. (journal cover)  PDF


González-Castro A*, Yang S, Nogales M, Carlo TA (2012) Assessing the effects of phenophase length and species abundance on key properties of frugivory and seed dispersal networks. Plos One 7: e41385.

Lezcano MN*, Fargi-Brenner AG, Gianoli E, Carlo TA (2012) Bottom-up effects may not reach the top: the influence of ant-aphid interactions on the spread of soil disturbances through trophic chains. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 279: 3779-3787. PDF

Carlo TA, Norris AW* (2012) Direct nitrogen intake by petals. Oikos 121: 1953-1958. PDF

Arce J, Carlo TA (2012) Iguana iguana invasion in Puerto Rico: facing the evidence. Biological Invasions 9: 1981-1984.

Karubian J, Browne L, Bosque C, Carlo TA, Galetti M, Loiselle BA, Blake JG, Cabrera D, Holbrook KM, Holland R, Jetz W, Kunmeth F, Olivo J, Ottewell K, Rivas G, Steiger S, Voirin B, Wikelski M. (2012) Seed dispersal by Neotropical birds: Emerging patterns and underlying processes. Ornitología Neotropical 23: 9-24.

Lugo A, Carlo TA, Wunderle J (2012) Natural mixing of species: novel plant-animal communities in Puerto Rico. Animal Conservation 15: 233–241. PDF

Morales JM, Rivarola D*, Amico G, Carlo TA (2012) Neighborhood effects on seed dispersal by frugivores: testing theory with a mistletoe-marsupial system in Northern Patagonia. Ecology 93: 741–748. (Journal cover). PDF

Carlo TA, Pérez-Rivera RA, Gleditsch JM* (2012) Folivory by a tropical tanager: spectrum of plant use and relationships to fruit abundance. Journal of Field Ornithology 83: 11-16. PDF


Carlo TA, Yang S (2011) Network models of frugivory and seed dispersal: challenges and opportunities. Acta Oecologica 27(6): 619-624. PDF

Carlo TA, Campos-Arceiz, A, Steele M, Xiong W (2011) Frugivory and seed dispersal: integrating patterns, mechanisms, and consequences of a key animal-plant interaction. Integrative Zoology 6(3): 165-167.

Campos-Arceiz, A, Steele M, Carlo TA, Xiong W (2011) An integrative look at frugivory and seed dispersal studies. Integrative Zoology 6: 71-73.

García-Quijano CG, Carlo TA, Arce J (2011) Interactions between humans and introduced green iguanas in a Puerto Rican urban estuary. Journal of Human Organization 70(2):164-178.

Caraballo-Ortiz MA*, Santiago-Valentín E, Carlo TA (2011) The Effect of Flower Number and Distance to Neighbors on Fecundity of Goetzea elegans (Solanaceae), an Endangered Tropical Tree. Journal of Tropical Ecology 27: 521-528.

Gleditsch JM*, Carlo TA (2011) Fruit quantity of invasive shrubs predict the abundance of common avian frugivores in central Pennsylvania. Diversity & Distributions 17: 244-253. PDF


Carlo TA, Tewksbury JJ, Martínez del Río CM (2009) Tracking the fate of seedlings with a stable isotope. Ecology 90: 3516-3525.PDF


Tewksbury JJ, Reagan KM*, Machnicki NJ*, Carlo TA, Haak DC, Calderón-Peñaloza AL, Levey DJ (2008) The evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(33): 11808-11811. PDF

Carlo TA, Morales JM (2008) Inequalities in fruit-removal and seed dispersal: consequences of bird behavior, neighbourhood density, and landscape aggregation. Journal of Ecology 96: 609–618. PDF


Carlo TA, Aukema JE, Morales JM (2007) Plant-frugivore interactions as spatially explicit networks: integrating animal foraging and fruiting plant spatial patterns. Pages 369-390 in A. Dennis, E. Schupp, and D. Wescott (Eds.) Seed dispersal: theory and its application in a changing world, CABI, Oxon, UK. PDF

Aukema, JE, Carlo TA, Collazo JA (2007) Landscape assessment of tree communities in the northern karst of Puerto Rico. Plant Ecology 189: 101–115. PDF


Levey D.J., Tewksbury JJ, Cipollini ML, and Carlo TA (2006) A field test of the directed deterrence hypothesis in two species of wild chili. Oecologia 150: 61-68.

Morales JM, and Carlo TA (2006) The effects of plant distribution and frugivore density on the scale and shape of dispersal kernels. Ecology 87: 1489-1495.


Carlo TA, Aukema JE (2005) Female directed dispersal and facilitation between a tropical mistletoe and its dioecious host. Ecology 86: 3245-3251. PDF

Carlo TA (2005) Interspecifc neighbors change seed dispersal pattern of an avian-dispersed plant. Ecology 86: 2440–2449. PDF

Saracco JF, Collazo JA, Groom MJ, Carlo TA (2005) Crop size and fruit neighborhood effects on visitation to fruiting trees. Biotropica 37: 80-86.

Kuijt J, Carlo TA, Aukema JE. (2005) A new endemic species for Puerto Rico: Dendrophtora bermejae (Viscaceae). Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 24: 115-118.


Carlo TA, Collazo JA, Groom MJ. (2004) Influences of fruit diversity and abundance on bird use of two shaded coffee plantations. Biotropica 36(4): 602-614.


Carlo TA, Collazo JA, Groom MJ (2003) Avian fruit preferences across a Puerto Rican forested landscape: pattern consistency and implications for seed removal. Oecologia 134: 119-131. PDF