For my essay, I’ll be analyzing Pope Urban II’s call for a crusade.
In 1095 C.E., envoys from the Byzantine emperor, Alexius I, went to Pope Urban II and pleaded for him to send military aid to Constantinople, which was being threatened by the increasingly powerful Muslim Turks.
Pope Urban then delivered a sermon at Clermont, in France, and called on the Christians of Europe to unite and rescue the Holy Land from the clutches of the invading Muslim infidels.
Urban’s words have been recounted by several historical figures who heard the sermon: Fulcher of Chartres, Robert the Monk, Baldric of Dol, and Guilbert of Nogent. Therefore, I will be reading each of these different transcripts, and analyzing the ethos, pathos, and logos of Pope Urban II’s argument for why a crusade to the Holy Land was necessary.
I will also include historical background, and lay out the important contextual details that illustrate why Urban’s argument was so powerful, and why his argument ultimately worked.