MapReduce framework is widely used to parallelize batch jobs since it exploits a high degree of multi-tasking to process them. However, it has been observed that when the number of servers increases, the map phase can take much longer than expected. This paper analytically shows that the stochastic behavior of the servers has a negative effect on the completion time of a MapReduce job, and continuously increasing the number of servers without accurate scheduling can degrade the overall performance. We analytically model the map phase in terms of hardware, system, and application parameters to capture the effects of stragglers on the performance. Mean sojourn time (MST), the time needed to sync the completed tasks at a reducer, is introduced as a performance metric and mathematically formulated. Following that, we stochastically investigate the optimal task scheduling which leads to an equilibrium property in a datacenter with different types of servers. Our experimental results show the performance of the different types of schedulers targeting MapReduce applications. We also show that, in the case of mixed deterministic and stochastic schedulers, there is an optimal scheduler that can always achieve the lowest MST.
GTNS is a discrete-event network simulator targeted primarily for research and educational use. GTNS is written in Visual C++ programming language and supports different network topologies. This simulator was first produced to implement locally multipath adaptive routing (LMAR) protocol, classified as a new reactive distance vector routing protocol for MANETs. LMAR can find an ad-hoc path without selfish nodes and wormholes using an exhaustive search algorithm in polynomial time. Also when the primary path fails, it discovers an alternative safe path if network graph remains connected after eliminating selfish/malicious nodes. The key feature of LMAR to seek safe route free of selfish and malicious nodes in polynomial time is its searching algorithm and flooding stage that its generated traffic is equi-loaded compared to single-path routing protocols but its security efficiency to bypass the attacks is much better than the other multi-path routing protocols. LMAR concept is introduced to provide the security feature known as availability and a simulator has been developed to analyze its behavior in complex network environments . Then we have added detection mechanism to the simulator, which can detect selfish nodes in network. The proposed algorithm is resilient against collision and can be used in networks which wireless nodes use directional antennas and it also defend against an attack that malicious nodes try to break communications by relaying the packets in a specific direction. Some game theoretic strategies to enforce cooperation in network have been implemented in GTNS, for example Forwarding-Ratio Strategy, TFT-Strategy and ERTFT. This tutorial helps new users to get familiar with GTNS and run different network scenarios.
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