Executive Summary

Genetic engineering is the science of adding new DNA to an existing organism. This allows an organism to be given new traits that can protect or improve it in some way. Applications of genetic engineering include crop enhancement (resistance to diseases, drought, greater yield, etc.), medicinal uses, and livestock augmentations.

More research and experimentation with genes have made genetic engineering more usable in the medical world. Some current uses that are attributed to changing the genetic information are related to the modification of foods, biosimilar medicine, edible vaccines, and genetically modified animals and plants.

The views of genetic engineering change depending on the person. However, there seems to be more benefits than disadvantages when modifying genes for a purpose.  Benefits such as faster growth rate for animals and plants, pest-resistance in crops outweigh, etc. the disadvantage such as less biodiversity and genetic problems.  When looking at genetic engineering in humans, we face several ethical issues.

Scientists have discussed the ethical framework of working with human genes. Since modifying the DNA of a person may change their physical configurations, genetics play with the ability of altering the real nature of a person. Some of the important ethical issues are genetic experimentation on humans, patenting genetic material, genes modification for aesthetics , and discrimination of individuals with genetic anomalies.