Steganalysis of least significant bit (LSB) embedded images in spatial domain has been investigated extensively over the past decade and most well-known LSB steganography methods have been shown to be detectable. However, according to the latest findings in the area, two major issues of very low-rate (VLR) embedding and content-adaptive steganography have remained hard to resolve. The problem of VLR embedding is indeed a generic problem to any steganalyser, while the issue of adaptive embedding specifically depends on the hiding algorithm employed. The latter challenge has recently been brought up again to the area of LSB steganalysis by highly undetectable stego image steganography that offers a content-adaptive embedding scheme for grey-scale images. The authors new image steganalysis method suggests analysis of the relative norm of the image Clouds manipulated in an LSB embedding system. The method is a self-dependent image analysis and is capable of operating on low-resolution images. The proposed algorithm is applied to the image in spatial domain through image Clouding, relative auto-decorrelation features extraction and quadratic rate estimation, as the main steps of the proposed analysis procedure. The authors then introduce and use new statistical features, Clouds-Min-Sum and Local-Entropies-Sum, which improve both the detection accuracy and the embedding rate estimation. They analytically verify the functionality of the scheme. Their simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms some well known, powerful LSB steganalysis schemes, in terms of true and false detection rates and mean squared error.
So far, various components of image characteristics have been used for steganalysis, including the histogram characteristic function, adjacent colors distribution, and sample pair analysis. However, some certain steganography methods have been proposed that can thwart some analysis approaches through managing the embedding patterns. In this regard, the present paper is intended to introduce a new analytical method for detecting stego images, which is robust against some of the embedding patterns designed specifically to foil steganalysis attempts. The proposed approach is based on the analysis of the eigenvalues of the cover correlation matrix used for the purpose of the study. Image cloud partitioning, vertical correlation function computation, constellation of the correlated data, and eigenvalues examination are the major challenging stages of this analysis method. The proposed method uses the LSB plane of images in spatial domain, extendable to transform domain, to detect low embedding rates-a major concern in the area of the LSB steganography. The simulation results based on deviation detection and rate estimation methods indicated that the proposed approach outperforms some well-known LSB steganalysis methods, specifically at low embedding rates.
Eigenvalues-based LSB steganalysis
We propose a novel image steganalysis method, based on singular value decomposition and noise estimation, for the spatial domain LSB embedding families. We first define a content independence parameter, DS, that is calculated for each LSB embedding rate. Next, we estimate the DS curve and use noise estimation to improve the curve approximation accuracy. It is shown that the proposed approach gives an estimate of the LSB embedding rate, as well as information about the existence of the embedded message (if any). The proposed method can effectively be applied to a wide range of the image LSB steganography families in spatial domain. To evaluate the proposed scheme, we applied the method to a large image database. Using a large image database, simulation results of our steganalysis scheme indicate significant improvement to both true detection and false alarm rates.
Full text > SVD and noise estimation based image steganalysis
Multi-dimensional spatial analysis of image pixels have not been much investigated for the steganalysis of the LSB Steganographic methods. Pixel distribution based steganalysis methods could be thwarted by intelligently compensating statistical characteristics of image pixels, as reported in several papers. Simple LSB replacement methods have been improved by introducing smarter LSB embedding approaches, e.g. LSB matching and LSB+ methods, but they are basically the same in the sense of the LSB alteration. A new analytical method to detect LSB stego images is proposed in this paper. Our approach is based on the relative locations of image pixels that are essentially changed in an LSB embedding system. Furthermore, we introduce some new statistical features including “local entropies sum” and “clouds min sum” to achieve a higher performance. Simulation results show that our proposed approach outperforms some well-known LSB steganalysis methods, in terms of detection accuracy and the embedding rate estimation.
Multi-dimensional correlation steganalysis