Every team is made up of three essential overlapping parts which are the leader, the follower, and the situation. As mentioned by Northouse (2013), there are two critical functions of leadership: helping the group accomplish its task (task function) and keeping the group maintained and functioning (maintenance function) (PSU WC, 2019, L. 9). An organization can be so large that most members do not know most of the other people within it. However, the group that you are a part of is small enough to impact both outlooks and self-perception. Through the “GRPI” and Ginnett’s model, one can see how leadership can be effective.
As early as 1977, this model of team effectiveness was proposed by Rubin, Plovnick, and Fry. It is also known as The GRPI Model of Team Effectiveness which stands for goals, roles, processes, and interpersonal relationships, and is represented in a diagram as a pyramid. In order for a team to be effective, they need these four parts. The first is Goals: well-defined objectives and desired results, plus clearly communicated priorities and expectations. The second is Roles: well-defined responsibilities, acceptance of a leader. The third is Processes: clear decision-making processes as well as work procedures Interpersonal relationships: good communication, trust, and flexibility. If you put all the parts together while working in a group at an organization, you will exceed expectations.
In addition, there is Ginnett’s Team Effectiveness Leadership Model. The Team Effectiveness Leadership Model (TELM) is a model designed to help teams perform more effectively (Ginnett, 1993; 1996). (PSU WC, 2019, L. 9) This model is divided into “inputs,” “process,” and “outputs.” The inputs stand for the motivation and ability. The process is the communication, coordination, and conflict management. The Outputs stand for goods and services as well as satisfaction (PSU WC, 2019, L. 9). According to the TELM, team leadership is exercised through three functions: dream, design, and development (PSU WC, 2019, L. 9). A dream is having a sense of direction, a design is having organizational stages, and development which improves team performance. With practice of all of the functions of the model, a leader can influence team effectiveness.
Now that we have gone over the models, how can a team’s effectiveness be put in to play in an organization? Firstly, while being a part of a group it is essential to work together to design the inputs and and/or goals of the team. Without goals, we don’t have clarity of the main purpose of the team or an agreement on the desired results. Secondly, one would need to determine the roles and tasks that would entail the responsibilities of the team. This will clear boundaries and identify any gaps. Third, one would need to go over the processes which include knowledge and skills as well as strategy in a group dynamic. This is important because one could be on a different skill level than another person. Also, if the team is not performing effectively (team effectiveness), then the leader can make the first strategic choice by monitoring the situation or acting to improve team functioning (Northouse, 2016, pg. 384) And last but not least, interpersonal relationships which allow everything to come together and release the outputs that would complete the effectiveness of the team. This function is carried out by collaboration, good communication, and trust. A team cannot be interdependent if there is a lack of trust.
A leader has a very important job because they are in charge of influencing the others in the group to follow and achieve the same common goal. However, it doesn’t have to be just one leader that influences others in a group. Leadership behaviors can be shared by team or group members (PSU WC, 2019, L. 9). All of the members of the group can contribute to the process of leadership and in return will be a more effective team. And if one follows the model it will only lead to a result-driven structure.
Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Pennsylvania State University World Campus. (2019). PSYCH 485: Lesson 9 Team Leadership Retrieved from https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/canvas/su19/2195min-5376/content/09_lesson/printlesson.html
The Korn/Ferry Institute (2009). Retrieved from https://www.kornferry.com/media/lominger_pdf/teamswhitepaper080409.pdf