Monthly Archives: July 2015

Something makes you never forget

People always forget about something and that is quite normal. Reason because the memory decays rapidly especially your short-term memory. Everyday, a lot of memories are established and most of them swiped out of our mind. However, some of our short-term memories are encoded into long-term memories through the process of rehearsal. People might wonder why sometimes I still cannot remember that long-term memory, that is because you missed one of the beauties of your memory, the retrieval cue. The cue can make you retrieve your long-term memory out of your mind.

I never realize that retrieval cues play an important role in my life until I learn that. In the past 19 years, there are lots of memorable moments in my life. However, I cannot always remember all of them. If you ask me to recall one of the most memorable moments in your life right now, I cannot do that. There is one thing that can help me recall my memory, and that is the retrieve cue.

In the past, I was always curious about why a simple stimulus can make me remember a bunch of memories. For instance, every year, we all are gathering in our grandparent’s house. For me, it is hard to recall my childhood when I was little. Nevertheless, once I get to the house, memories of my childhood simply acts like a stream flowing back to my mind. I start to remember how naughty I was when I was a kid. Just like watching movie, my memory becomes so vivid that I can hard to believe. Right now, I understand the house is actually the retrieval cue of my childhood memories. I can hardly recall that memories without the cue. Another example, once I smell a fragrance when I was walking on the street, suddenly I start to recall my girlfriend. I feel very strange. Eventually, I realize that the smell of the fragrance is come from the same perfume my girlfriend used. And the odor can simply become the retrieval cue, which makes me recall memories without consciousness. According to the textbook, the method I used is called “cued recall” and my experience “demonstrate that retrieval cues aid memory”(Goldstein, 2011).

However, retrieve cue can also sometimes fail you. There is a theory named retrieval failure theory. “Retrieval failure is where the information is in long term memory, but cannot be accessed”(McLeod, 2008). The information is your long-term memory, however, without the correct cue you can never remember that. I had that experience before. I was taking a memory quiz at that moment; I was trying to recall the name of a psychologist. I kept telling myself he was a British. However, no matter how hard I tried I cannot retrieve his name. Apparently, I was wrong about the retrieval cue. The psychologist is American. The long-term memory cannot be accessed due to the wrong cue or without cue.

In conclusion, retrieval cues are a crucial part of retrieve long-term memory process. With the support of cue, people can easily access the long-term memory without too much struggle. In contract, no cue or with wrong cue can make you hard to access you long-term memory even though you think you might remember that. Of course, the best way to remember is keep practicing and rehearsal. You cannot expect a simple cue can make you nail the exam and retrieve every piece of knowledge you learn. But retrieval cues are actually quite useful in many ways of your life.

Goldstein, E.B. (2011).  Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, Third Ed. Belmont, CA. Wasdworth, Cengage Learning.

McLeod, S. A. (2008). Forgetting. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/forgetting.html

 

Retrieval Cues and Their Importance

It is a common belief that memory retrieval is a simple process. Information is stored in working memory, transferred to long term memory, and can then be retrieved as needed. However, the reality of memory retrieval is more complex than this simple, certain path. Just because a memory has been fully encoded is no guarantee that it can be retrieved and applied at will. There are many factors that affect the retrieval process that can make us either more or less likely to remember information when we need it.
One process that can improve the likelihood of remembering previously learned knowledge are retrieval cues. Retrieval cues are any stimulus or words that help us remember stored memories (Goldstein, 2011). These cues can be just about any sort of stimulus, from familiar sounds, to sights, to smells. These cues can be surprisingly powerful and can help us remember events we may not have thought of for years, such as returning to a childhood home and recalling many events from time spent there. To demonstrate the effectiveness of retrieval cues, a study conducted by Tulving and Pearlstone in 1996 (Goldstein, 2011) compared free recall (where a participant is simply asked to remember a set of words) and cued recall (where they are provided retrieval cues before being asked to recall a set of words.) The results showed the free recall group could only remember 40% of the words, whereas the cued recall group remembered 75% of the words.
It’s probably not particularly surprising that memory can be improved with clever reminders. However, the conditions in which a memory was encoded also can have a profound impact on when that memory is recalled. When a memory is encoded it is more likely to be recalled in conditions that are similar to the ones in which it was initially learned. This is known as matching conditions. While there are likely many more principles phenomena can be applied to, there are three that are the most well known and studied. First is encoding specificity, which applies to the external environment at the time a memory was encoded, such as smells, sounds, physical characteristics of a room. Second is state-dependent learning, which applies to the individuals internal state or mood at the time, such as their mood or state of awareness. Last is transfer-appropriate processing, which applies to the type of task that was conducted during encoding, such as the sort of reasoning that was being applied. When these traits match up to the ones we were under when we encoded the memory, we are much more likely to remember it later.
This can have significant repercussions in our lives in any situation where it is important to remember large amounts of information (most obviously any study session should consider these facts. When studying, trying to learn the information that is being tested isn’t the only thing that should be considered, but also what characteristics the study environment will have. Consider turning off any music or other distractions, not just because they can be distracting, but also because it is unlikely the test environment will be silent as well. Tailoring your environment to one that matches the desired one could take some effort, but it can make a large difference in recalling needed information.

Goldstein, B. E. (2011). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind Research and Everyday Experience (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Remember Lots of Numbers Fast and Long-term!

When I was a little girl, my dad bought this cassette tape that would help you remember longer lists of numbers faster. The program gave you a visual to attach to each number, for example when looking at the number two, you should think of a light switch because it only has two options: on or off; for the number three, you should think of a tree, because they sound similar, and so on. Actually, those are the only ones I remember because I didn’t care about those things when I was seven. After you have visuals, you string them together in a story of some sort. Now that I’m learning some of the components that make up memory, I’d like to evaluate if this program was a piece of junk or if it really did have some substance behind it.
The method of the program was to give you visuals so you could string together a story. In chapter five of our cognitive psychology textbook, this is described as holding something in the visuospatial sketch pad, in the working memory. Not yet on the path to long term memory, which is the goal of the program, but there might still be some hope for that. The visuospatial sketch pad is more prominently related to short term memory, which is memory that is held for a brief period of time. However, with conscious rehearsal it can be encoded into the long term memory. What I question is the likelihood of this happening.
What’s stopping someone from rehearsing this enough and turning it over into the long term memory bank? Nothing. But the long term memory has a bias towards remembering semantic coding versus auditory and visual coding. So, the challenge would be to give more of a meaning to this story, preferably episodic and semantic together, to help kick it into the long term memory. This means that you would have to have a personal experience to create the meaning. For example, if you wanted to remember the number 32, think of trees and a light switch, then go outside and find one tree (because too many trees and you might think the number had many three’s) then let the next thing you do be to turn on a light switch. This way, you have the personal experience and meaning to the number 32. This is a lot of trouble to go through to remember the number 32, but I doubt people would have bought the program if this was the method.
In conclusion, this method of using visuals might get someone to the short term memory stage without a great deal of rehearsing. Therefore, the promise of remembering many numbers for long periods of time might be a bit ambiguous for the reality of it. If you’d really like to remember a reasonable amount of numbers, such as 5 or 9, at a time, repetition might be your best bet.
Goldstein, E. Bruce. Cognitive Psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

My story gets less funny everyday!

I am a strong believer that the serial positron curve (which indicates that memory is better for words at the beginning and at the end of a list) does not only relate to word memorization. Have you ever tried to tell a funny story to someone but for some reason you are only able to remember the beginning and the end? This happened to me just the other week. It amazed me that I had told this same story countless times soon after the event happened but after a couple of weeks when I tried to retell the story again all the middle details were a blur. Why is that? I have a couple of theories.

 

Theory one: Is it the primacy and recency effect coming into play? If it were, you would have to go beyond mere word memorization on a list. You would have to put it into perspective of an actual event. For example, the story that I told my friends was about a blind date that I went on that quickly turned uncomfortable and believe it or not, PHYSICAL! My “date” (who wasn`t even supposed to be my date at all) got extremely possessive and jealous after knowing me for only a few hours. Later on in the date a friend of mine video messaged me, and I answered. Of course it was a guy (just a friend) who for some reason was lacking a shirt. Seeing this made my blind date absolutely furious and he began to strangle me, not seriously of course but enough to make me very uncomfortable. I am of course leaving out many details and giving the abridged version, but when I tell this story to my friends I realized over time that I was using less details, less quotes, and generally could not remember all the in-between factors of the event. This makes me believe that long-term and short term memory are not the only reasons why we remember things that happened in the beginning and in the end, but that meaning plays an important factor into it. Being that the beginning and ending of the story are the most important and monumental parts it makes sense that I would forget all the minor details.

 

Other possible theories include decay, which would simply mean that the passage of time caused me to forget, but that still would not explain why I remember the beginning and ending of my story much more vividly then the middle. I suppose it could be proactive interference, which means that interference occurs when information that was learned previously interferes with learning new information. So my theory is that my days to follow after the event was filled with so much, that my mind started to forget the little details that it deemed unimportant to remember, it instead hung on to things that were probably more relevant at that point in time. IF this were true then 3 months from now I would probably not even be able to remember most of the details that occurred leading up to my incident. Unless I continue to rehearse my story, every passing day I forget more and more.

 

Research done by Brady suggests that long term memory may not be as “fuzzy” as we believe it to be. In his experiment the researchers asked the subjects to remember 3000 pictures of common objects, the results showed that participants answered 90% right with surprising clarity and detail. So maybe I wont forget any more of my story 6 months from now. Only time will tell.

 

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-do-we-forget-things/

Flashbulb Memory

When I think of memory and after having read about flashbulb memory in the book, I’ve always been fascinated that when a traumatic or significant event takes place, those who remember it can describe in the most vivid detail all of the scene and what it was that they were doing at the time.

Early September, in Sequim, Washington, I woke up to my Grandmother telling me to come into the living room and watch the television to see what was happening. I had visit my grandparents the day before and didn’t have to work that day or the day after, so I ate a nice home-cooked dinner from my Grandmother and spent the night looking forward to one of my Grandfather’s classic omelet breakfasts in the morning. Instead of the infamous breakfast, I joined my Grandfather in the living room and witnessed in horror the World Trade Center terrorist attacks on the news. The interesting thing is, when asked to recall the actual event that I witnessed, I can only give a generic version of seeing the planes hit the towers and the rest of what unfolded. I can’t even remember which news station was broadcasting the event. However, I can tell you exactly what I was wearing, what my Grandfather was wearing, the look on his face, the smell coming from the kitchen and so on.

The term flashbulb memory is defined by Brown and Kulik as ‘memory for the circumstances surrounding hearing about shocking, highly charged events.’ (Brown, 397) I can remember so vividly my whereabouts, what I was doing, who I was with, when it was, what everyone was wearing, the surrounding smells, all of my perceptive observations, is because of Flashbulb memory. This is directly linked to emotion and there are several events in my life where I can think of being able to describe them, because of flashbulb memory. I agree with Brown and Kulik that there is a certain specific link to this type of memory and how we store these memories.

Goldstein, E. Bruce. “Everyday Memory and Memory Error.”Cognitive Psychology. Wadsworth Zengage Learning, 2008. 208-212, 397. Print.

 

Magic: A simple game of attention

Magic.  We have all been awed and inspired by magic at some point in our lives.  From childhood to adulthood, our imaginations have been fascinated and mesmerized by this entity called magic.  I can still remember watching David Copperfield on the television and thinking to myself how awesome he was to be able to perform such acts.  A single blink of the eye and intrigue becomes the question of how did he do that?  With magic, we are left wondering what happened or did we miss something?   Does magic involve special powers or is it a simple game of attention?

Attention is our ability to focus on a particular object or task.  In truth, magic tricks have everything to do with how well people pay attention.  Macknik et al. (2008) confirms “magicians have explored the techniques that most effectively divert attention or exploit the shortcomings of human vision and awareness.” (para. 1) Magicians prey on the idea that people cannot simultaneously focus their attention on multiple tasks, which is what makes magic so amazing!

pic

 

google images/ magic

When we are shown a trick, we pay we pay attention to the hands of the magician in an attempt to try and catch what he is doing.  When we do this we are utilizing our selective attention. We are not focused on what else may be happening around us, but only on what we select to focus our attention on.   This could also lead us into many other visual flaws in our attention, such as inattentional or change blindness. Let us say a magician shows us a deck of cards, all with red backs and tells us there is something different on one of the cards and we fail to find it we have experienced change blindness.  Likewise in the same case, the magician shows us a deck of cards, all with red backs, but does not tell us there is something different on one of the cards, although there is. While looking through the cards our attention is focused on everyone else looking through their cards and we miss the card that was different, we have experienced inattentional blindness.  Jensen et al. (2011) adds “Change blindness and inattentional blindness both document a surprising failure to notice something that occurred right before our eyes” (p. 13).  These and other visual attention errors provide magicians with great springboards to create magic tricks.

To conclude, magic does not involve special powers, but is in fact is a game of attention. Audiences around the world attend the shows of David Copperfield, Penn and Teller and Chris Angel.  But are these magicians really good at what they do or are we just really bad at paying attention?  Collectively, this is the idea we know as magic.

References

Jensen, Melinda S., Yao, Richard., Street, Whitney., Simmons , Daniel J. (Mar 01 2011) Change blindness and inattentional blindness. COGNITIVE SCIENCE. 2(5). doi: 10.1002/wcs.130

Macknik, Stephen L., King, Mac., Randi, James., Robbins, Apollo., Teller, John., Martinez-Conde,  Thompson, Susana., (November 2008) Attention and awareness in stage magic: turning tricks into magic.  Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 871-879. doi:10.1038/nrn2473

Inside of “Inside Out”

On June 4th the Disney Pixar hit “Inside Out” was released. It is a movie based on a young 11 year old girl that ends  up having to move away from the town she has known her whole life and is forced into the strange unknown. She does not make this journey with just her parents though, she makes it with those that govern the inner most workings of her mind. There are five characters that control her reactions to her everyday experiences, these characters are manifested as Joy, Anger, Fear, Disgust, and Sadness. Their main objective is to make memories for her and to assure that they are all Joy’s memories because that is how her happiness remains. Conflict arises and Joy, sadness, and the young girls core memories (her first hockey game, meeting her best friend, etc.) are no longer at “headquarters.”

Beyond headquarters with Joy, Sadness, and the core memories you visit Family Island, Honesty Island, Hockey Island, Friendship Island and Goofball Island, all of which are the result of her five core memories. Along the journey back to headquarters there are aisles of memories which you later find out are known as the archives for the young girl, Riley’s, long term memories. Along their adventure they come upon Riley’s old imaginary friend walking throughout long term as well. The three of them attempt to make their way back to headquarters to put an end to the destruction of Riley’s memories and emotions (due to the fact that Anger, Fear, And Disgust are the only one governing Riley’s actions and reactions). During their final realization of how to make it back, Joy (with the core memories) and the imaginary friend fall into the memories dump. The memory dump is where useless memories go to be forgotten over time (symbolizing short term memory).

I’m discussing this movie with all of you because for an animated children’s movie, it revealed a sundry amount of information about out emotions and also our memories. Long term memory is a system for permanently storing, managing, and retrieving information for later use. Items of information stored as long-term memory may be available for a lifetime and is illustrated exactly in the way within the movie. It also revealed that our “core memories” (i.e. wedding days, births, deaths, siblings) shift our personalities and share a greater connection than we realize. In reference to the memory dump, that is the physical manifestation of short term memory, which is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time, which explains why all memories in the dump eventually fade.

I highly suggest that everyone watch this movie, not only does it explain memory to children but it helps with the understanding of personalty and emotion. It ultimately tells us that it is if you aren’t always happy and even the sadder memories can be good ones.

How memory plays a BIG part in addiction

There has been a long debate over whether addiction to drugs and alcohol or certain behaviors is truly a disease or some sort of moral deficiency. I would like to talk briefly about new information that finds two neurotransmitters play a key role in why addiction is a disease of the brain. The big surprise until recently is the fact that one of these neurotransmitters is linked to memory. In the 2009 video “Pleasure Unwoven Dr. Kevin McCauley describes how addiction fits the disease model by affecting the brain (organ), having a (defect) in the reward system in the brain, and finally resulting in (symptoms) such as lying, cheating, and manipulating to just name a few. Just looking at the pleasure defect is an incomplete picture I would like to discuss the role of memory in addiction.

The neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key role in addiction because it is the pleasure chemical in the brain (McCauley, 2009). It is released in the midbrain and subconscious area of the brain. When people use drugs or alcohol high levels of dopamine are released which the brain was never meant to handle (Lange, 2010). This explains why people want to use drugs but does not give a good explanation of why addicts continue to use drugs despite the consequences associated with them. This is where memory comes into play. The other neurotransmitter involved in addiction is glutamate. It is associated to identifying the brain to remember something. Because of the high levels of dopamine released with drugs it triggers dopamine to “lock” the memory into the brain (McCauley, 2009). As time goes on though it does not begin to just associate the drug with pleasure it begins associating everything associated with drugs (which becomes about everything in an addicts life) with pleasure. The memories associated with drug use become “super memories” (Lange, 2010). I believe these memories are implicit and fall into the category of Classical Conditioning (Goldstein, 2011). Like the psychologist Pavlov and his dogs where a bell ringing became associated with getting a treat and triggers the dogs to salivate. Triggers for the addict become people, places, and things. For the addict exposed to these memories brings about strong emotional responses which are called cravings (Lange, 2010). Without proper coping skills they are very difficult to resist. This disrupts the normal “stop” and “go” response of the brain. This is why drastically impacts the ability to bring into the rational thinking the consequences of use. Based on memories associated with pleasure, glutamate tells the person to “go” or to use despite drastic negative consequences to their lives.

In my everyday experience with working with people with addiction problems this explanation makes sense to me. When I see clients ruin many aspects of their lives by using drugs (and being aware of why)  then use drugs again when the opportunity arises even though I believe they truly do not want to needs a good explanation.  Many peoples belief that they “chose” to do it just does not cut it for me. Rationally think about why a person would choose to ruin their lives in such ways.  The reality is that addicts begin using drugs without the intention of becoming addicted. It starts with experimentation and when they experience the high amount of pleasure drugs produce they do it more. There is no way to tell when it will switch from recreational use or experimentation into addiction.

The next time you hear a conversation about addiction I would like anyone to think back to this explanation of addiction as a chronic, biological brain disease. Maybe even do a little more research into my sources. I think there needs to be a spreading of the knowledge about addiction because so many people are very ignorant about what it really is. The fact of the matter is that addiction effects everyone in one way or another and is considerably affecting our country as a whole. Lock this information into your long term memory and educate others on a “disease” that affects so many.

Goldstein, E.B. (2011).  Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, Third Ed. Belmont, CA. Wasdworth, Cengage Learning.

McCauley, Kevin, 2009, “Pleasure Unwoven” DVD, Institute for Addiction Study

 

Lange, G. (2010). How addiction lights up our brains. Retrieved July 12, 2015.

 

Long Term Memory: LOST

When I was 8 years old, my parents and I attended a family reunion in my uncle’s neighborhood in Raleigh, North Carolina. Because my father was in the military and stationed overseas, I had never been to North Carolina, nor had I met a majority of my family members other than my immediate ones (aunts, uncles, grandparents, etc.). After being introduced to my cousins, we spent a lot of time playing together, especially outside. While outside, we got into a game of “hide and go seek” and as most of my little cousins ran one way, I ran the opposite way, determined to find the best hiding spot. I must have ran too far away from where we were playing because I ended up getting lost. I walked around the neighborhood trying to find my parents and trying to find my cousins, but to no avail. I felt hopeless and didn’t know what to do. I was afraid to go ask for help because I remembered all the lectures from my parents telling me not to talk to strangers. I remember, walking up and down the street crying uncontrollably as I approached a park. There were a few children playing in the park, and there were a few adults as well. When I got close to the park, one of the parents asked me what was wrong, and since I had no other option and didn’t know what else to do, I told them I couldn’t find my family and that I was lost. There were no cell phones back then, so they couldn’t call anyone, and I didn’t know a number to call anyway. One of the parents, Mrs. Heather, whose name I was given after talking to her for a while, asked one of the other parents to go home and call 911 while she stayed behind to make sure nothing happened to me. Shortly after that, I remember seeing a few police cars speeding through the neighborhood with their lights flashing as they approached the park. They asked me for my name, my uncle’s name, my parent’s name, and to describe my uncle’s house or car the best I could. I gave them as much information that I could remember and they made their phone calls and sent a few policemen around the neighborhood to ask if anyone has lost their son. Shortly after that, I remember seeing my mother, with an entourage of my family members, running up to me, crying uncontrollably, as she was saying, “Don’t ever leave my sight again, what were you thinking?” My mom hugged and thanked Mrs. Heather and the police officer and after talking to them for a while, we headed back to my uncle’s house.

 

I am able to recall this event from my long-term memory because it was such a tragic event. I remember the effect it had on my parents when it happened and to this day, I still see how it has an impact on our close relationship. According to our textbook, Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, And Everyday Experience, 3rd edition, memory retrieval and long-term memory are prompted by the emotions that were experienced during the learning of a particular event. This explains why I am able to recall every detail of this event that took place in my life. Additionally, memory or retrieval cues related to this event, such as police cars, or playgrounds help me recall this experience, whenever or if ever I see one. I will never forget how I felt when I was lost, and now that I have a child, I will always be sure to keep an eye on him so that he will never have to experience what I did.

 

Retrieval Cues and Memory

I have a habit of putting M&M’s in a candy dish on an end table in my living room.  My husband’s best friend lives down the street and has two children, an 8 year old boy Zach and a 5 year old girl Julia.  They love to come to my house because I always have M&M’s.   One day I was telling my mother about how I put out the candy, and how Zach and Julia love to come to my house or even when they see me away from my house they ask if I have M&M’s.  My mother reminded me that when I was very little about 4 or 5, we would go visit her Aunt Ethel in Lehighton, PA and Aunt Ethel would always have M&M’s in a candy dish.  She told me that my brother and I would do the same thing as Zach and Julia.  I had forgotten all about that until my mother reminded me.

            This made me think of what I had just learned about retrieval clues in our text (Goldstein, 2001).  Once my mother told me, I had a flood of memories that I had completely forgotten about.  I could now remember the smells of Aunt Ethel’s house but more importantly the smell and taste of M&M’s that were in her candy dish.  I also remembered she would let me go into her bedroom and play with her jewelry and she would let me smell her perfume.  It really made me miss her and how much I loved her.

This also made me think memory and what we learned about it.  Even though I had not thought about Aunt Ethel or visiting her in years, I was retrieving from my long term memory or more specifically episodic memory (Goldstein, 2001).  I was remembering personal experiences that I thought I had forgotten.  As I was talking to my mother we were talking about the car rides going to see Aunt Ethel.  We lived in Bensalem, PA which is a suburb on the northeast side of Philadelphia, it is probably a two hour drive but it seemed like forever when I was little.  We would get a bucket of KFC chicken and eat it in the car on the way to her house and I could remember the drive, going through the tunnels on the North East Extension of the turnpike, and the radio cutting out while we were in the tunnel.

            Another thing learning about retrieval cues made me think of was my son.  When he was about 4 years old and we lived in New Jersey and we would take him to visit our friend Keith.  Keith had a vase that had marbles in it.  One day, my son took some marbles while we were visiting.  Keith teased my son about taking the marbles.  We lived two hours away from Keith and would not see him very often.  When Keith would call, my son would insist on talking to him and as soon as we put him on the phone he would say “Keith, I got your marbles” and hand the phone back to my husband.  We would not see or hear from Keith sometimes for months, but the first time Keith would call, the same thing would happen, my son would insist on talking to him and say the same thing.  Several years past and my son never mentioned the marbles.  We moved a few times since my husband and I were both in the military, but now we are back in New Jersey.  One day we went to Keith’s house.  My son was 15 at the time and he said out of nowhere “Keith I got your marbles.”    Everyone started laughing and I asked him why he said that to which he said he just remembered when we got to the house.  His returning to the house stimulated the memory, just as we have learned about retrieval cues (Goldstein, 2001).

I suppose that I did not remember my candy experience until my mother engaged me in cued recall (Goldstein, 2001).  I say this since I did not remember the M&M’s and the drive to Aunt Ethel’s until she reminded me, then I started to recall more memories from those visits.  I was more amazed however that my son, after all those years, remembered what he said to Keith, without my husband or myself every reminding him remembering something so explicit.  In our text we learned that people may remember important events and many of the details may fade (Goldstein, 2001), the marbles must have been important to my son, since he may not remember the entire episode, he remembered that he took Keith’s marbles.   It makes me wonder if one day we moved away from Zach and Julia, in 20 years, would they remember the M&M’s at my house.

Goldstein, E.B. (2011).  Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, Third Ed. Belmont, CA. Wasdworth, Cengage Learning.