Author Archives: ekl7

Get that Thesaurus out!!

As a young girl, I have always loved language, especially new words and I was extremely fascinated with words that had the same meaning.  Which at a young age, I wanted a dictionary and a thesaurus and loved learning new words and formulating complex sentences.


Our book, By Goldstein, in Chapter 11, covers many areas of language, which only added to my desire to know and learn words and process language.  As stated, it discusses “lexical ambiguity”, I mentioned above, that “words can have more than one meaning”.  Which as we all might recall one of the classics was:  they’re, their, and there.  (Goldstein, p.. 303)


I also loved listening and grasping the context of the word being used.  Words always fascinated me.  Without knowing the context though, there would indeed be great confusion or misunderstanding. Things would become misconstrued!


For me, I loved to study the words and their meanings.  I would write, which would be practice, as well utilize so I clearly understood and properly used the context of the word correctly.  When formulating the sentences with the proper syntax, things can be understood!


To this day, I STILL love words and language!  I enjoy writing and getting the context of new words.

I enjoyed learning much more in that chapter on language and the different processes like lexical priming, and syntax first approach.  It showed me a deeper side to what I already loved. I appreciate that!

Even the article, “The difference between Lexical Ambiguity and Structural Ambiguity in English language, it refers to “ambiguity” itself as a “word or expression that can be understood in two or more possible ways”, which makes the English language one of the most difficult to learn.  (scrib’, 2016)

This is also why as our book says, and goes into the Human language IS special, which I completely concur!  The way we learn and process words alone, to create use-able language, and being to communicate is fascinating!

I even love my husband because he loves “words” and learning them and using and applying them, especially to formulate and be careful of the syntax of the sentence structure so others can understand what it is you are trying to convey.  We both very much enjoy that, but as I mentioned, I truly appreciate this course, especially the chapter on language for other factors that I had not known previously! Made it even more fascinating. 🙂

~~Yes, call me a “word” junkie! LOL

Hold up, What’s you say? I’m driving…

Hold up, What’d you say? I’m driving….

Why is that many think they can talk on the phone, text while driving and not get distracted?  It’s so common these days.  My daughter and I even seen a lady, driving head fully looking down texting, almost hitting the next car and swerving into us!  Even just “talking” on the phone is indeed distracting.  “Driving is one of those tasks that demand constant attention.”  (Goldstein, 2011, pg. 94)

David Strayer and William Johnson (2001) did a laboratory experiment, which involved driving tasks requiring the participants to put on the breaks rapidly for a red light. As the experiment showed, more missed lights occurred due to cell phone use while driving, as well accidents occurred.  (Goldstein, 2011, pg. 94)

“Epidemiological research has found that cell phone use is associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of getting into an accident—a risk comparable to that of driving blood alcohol at the legal limit.”  The Psychological research shows that whether hands on or hands off, using a cell phone while driving, the driver’s attention on the road becomes very distracted, focus is limited, and they become “even worse than if they had too much to drink.” The driver’s reaction times to actions required while driving and talking on cell phone became much slower.  (American Psychological Association, 2006)

Even a “sophisticated, real-world study confirms that dialing, texting or reaching for a cell phone while driving raises the risk of a crash, or near-miss…”, which personally I find to be true.  Just simply reaching for your phone or even if you have Bluetooth installed in your car, does increase those risks.  Even talking on the Bluetooth, you definitely are distracted, especially if traffic is heavier, in higher merge area, or someone can come out of nowhere. It does impair, or reduce your ability to react as quickly as you would need, or perform a task, and you can miss a light by just talking even hands free. That is from my own personal experience.  (CBS News, 2014)

I personally have talked on my cell before I had blue tooth, and I find that is much more distracting than Bluetooth, and have even thrown my phone down before as it became necessary and I realized how distracting it was with what was going on with traffic around me.  Texting definitely a no-no, eyes are off the road.  “You don’t swerve so much when you’re talking on a cellphone; you just might run through a red light…” as Strayer said.  But again, from my own personal experience even with the Bluetooth, it is still just as distracting, taking your attention off the road, and slowing your reaction down, and enabling you to become more able to become in a motor vehicle accident.  (CBS News, 2014)

I now pull over, even with Bluetooth if I must be engaged in a conversation. There is too many distractions on the road, especially with cellphone while driving abuse so common.  I definitely agree with author of our book, that it is equivalent, if not worse than driving while impaired.  I hope everyone will take into consideration the true dangers, with or without Bluetooth about talking on a cellphone and driving, and definitely won’t consider texting while driving. Be safe people.  Don’t use your phone and drive.



Goldstein, 2011, pg. 94

American Psychological Association, 2006, February 1, Driven to Distraction, Retrieved from:


CBS News, 2014, January 2, Distracted Driving Study:  Cell phone dialing, texting, dangerous.  Talking? Less so.  Retrieved from:

Why do we forget: Even if we study?

I pondered what to write my blog about, as I have always been fascinated about Psychology, even as a little girl.  Now what caught my eye was the section on Psychologist, Hermann Ebbinghaus, who was one of the first to study forgetting and wanted to determine how are memory is and the relation to forgetting what we try to learn.  Good question right?

I have often wondered why I study so hard at times and seem to really know the material, especially if it is of a subject or topic I really like or am interested in knowing more about, but then somehow either forget key facts or maybe even a huge chunk of the material I thought I had down pat; everything is blank and I am unable to recall the material I tried to learn.  What was the reason? Is there something that contributed to it that helped me forget more easily?

The article, “Forgetting”, in Very Well, speaks of Ebbinghaus and his published findings in “Memory:  A Contribution to Experimental Psychology” in 1885.  His results were documented and was deemed the “Ebbinghaus forgetting curve”.  As he learned from testing his self for the experiment that “information is often lost very quickly after learned”.


Cues can help you recall things from memory.  A good example, my Art History professor told us on taking notes in class to retain memory, was to do a quick and simple sketch of an art work, with lil key notes on important facets of it.  It will job your memory, or a key word.  Being able to recall things from a vast of newly learned materials can be difficult, and definitely can be forgotten quickly.

The article continues to mention on reasons on why we forget.  Distractions, something that has definitely impeded my retaining material from time-to-time.  Another thing it mentioned that correlates with Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve, is “The Interference Theory of Forgetting”  It lists an example if you were asked what you ate for dinner last Tuesday, but you might not recall or have difficulty, but would probably more easily remember if it were more immediate, like the next morning.  As more time elapses, it is harder to recall from memory.  Similar things to remember are what it means by the “Interference Theory”.  Unique things are more likely to be remembered even with a lapse of time.

It is difficult to know what exactly creates the cause between memory and forgetting; it could be a multitude of reasons from interference, to new information, to time delays, so knowing what the main contributing factors are would not be easy to test or determine.

Definitely, as Ebbinghaus briefly indicated from his own tests, that when learning new material, or studying and then going to sleep, there was no drop in forgetting, as shown in the “Studying before Sleep” article, by Dr. Russ Dewey, 2007.  I would definitely have to agree with this, even if Ebbinghaus “reject some of his own data”.  By studying and then directly going to sleep, unless you suffer from insomnia, anxiety or other factors, you have no other interference with your memory.  You are asleep.  It is able to be restored right after the learning took place.


I personally have tried many ways, gaps before going to sleep, time in between, repetitive, but what seems to enable me to retain more and fully, is studying and then immediately going to sleep.  I never really looked at the other things that contributed to the “Why” we forget part before, but definitely delays and lapses of time in between learning and other interference or distractions cause forgetting and/or inability to recall or store the material or retain it properly.

With that being said, I know what I will be doing before the next quiz, going straight to bed after I study! 🙂


Works Cited:, “Forgetting”, 2016, About, Inc., Studying Before Sleep, 2007, Dr. Russ Dewey,