# Deductive Reasoning Vs. Inductive Reasoning

To define them:

* Deductive reasoning is defined as logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true. This is sometimes referred to as top-down logic.

* Inductive reasoning is defined as reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying strong evidence for the truth of the conclusion. This is sometimes called bottom-up logic.

Philosophy plays a major role in the origins of both of these styles of reasoning. The history stretches back as far as to the iconic philosopher of ancient Greece, Aristotle.Although confusing, much thought has been dedicated to understanding these two concepts and their roles in our daily lives, as well as their neurological bases.

A flaw of inductive reasoning is that it does not guarantee for statements to be true, but it is the in the basis of much of human cognition. It is a matter of hypothesis selection based upon certain criteria of relevance. Inductive reasoning is oftentimes linked to heuristics and most definitely the Representative Heuristic, which is a heuristic that tempts one to us to judge something entirely off of how many features it has in common with something else. This can be very faulty and is definitely not necessarily true. In my own life, I very frequently fall for the lure of inductive reasoning and see that my judgment may have been valid, but certainly was not true, like in the case of when I tried to befriend someone many years ago that I felt sorry for. They struck me as friendly, but ended up being very horrible in the end and I have not spoken to them in years. Such is inductive reasoning – associating something with a characteristic or group because it appears to resemble them, but in truth it isn’t part of them.

There are different types of syllogisms that exist that are used to study reasoning. Such examples are categorical syllogisms and conditional syllogisms. Categorical syllogisms showcase premises and conclusions, demonstrating the correlations between categories, and making use of quantifiers such as “all,” “none,” or “some.” Contrasting, with conditional syllogisms, the first premise has the form “if/then.” Many people have a hard time understanding the difference between truth and validity. Just because something is valid does not make it true and just because something is true does not make it valid. These two things are often confused, being used interchangeably, when they are not truly mutual.
Rationality itself is a very complicated thing that few people truly understand. “Why is the sky blue?” some ask, but there are the overwhelming majority that just don’t care why it is blue, and there are some that will claim it is green. In terms of decision making, either deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning can be used. It is probably better to use deductive reasoning though. Cognitive psychologists have divided the decision making process into five tasks: Set or revise goals, gather information, make plans, structure the decision, and the final selection. This is a complex task, but can be aided with the use of utility theory. Expected utility theory refers to the hypothesis that if humans have the relevant information, we will make decisions in a rational way and will chose options that result in the maximum possible expected utility. Benefits and costs are also factors that determine our decision making.
In my own life, I have used both forms of reasoning many times. An example of using deductive reasoning would be when I began signing up for classes this summer. I took a physiology class due to a requirement in my major. Naturally, with it being a biology class,I assumed that it would be very hard. “All biology classes are hard. Physiology is a biology class. Therefore, it must be hard…” In this case, it was both valid and true, because yes, the CLASS IS VERY HARD!!!!!! As a gay man, an example of inductive reasoning in my life was when I first met my boyfriend and mistook him for straight when in fact, he is gay. He is very masculine and handsome, not being feminine acting or sounding at all. He is athletic and has a strong German accent and is very rugged in his features, being 6’5 in height and fairly muscular. I was instantly attracted to him, but I shot down my own hopes by telling myself “He’s gotta be straight…” To my shock later on, I found out quite the contrary and that he liked me back… I, myself, am not feminine or stereotypically gay acting at all, so I should’ve known better, but I didn’t. Using the representative heuristic, I made that initial error in judgement, but it turned out that despite strongly resembling a straight guy, he is gay… and European 😉

References
Wede, J. (2017) Lesson 14: Reasoning and Decision Making. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:
Goldstein, B. Sensation and Perception. 1980.

# Episodic and Semantic Memories

Episodic memories and semantic memories are different types of memories. The former refers to events we participated in and are capable of being something as extravagant  as one’s own wedding or high school graduation, but may also be as forgettable as what one ate for dinner two weeks ago on a Friday evening. To summarize, episodic memories are an autobiographical recollection of one’s own  experiences which did occur upon any place or time. Researchers theorize that these memories are held within a temporal manner inside the brain. They are, in general, facts about ourselves that we can recall.

Semantic memories are the opposite… They are facts about the world around us. General knowledge such as the sky is blue and 2 + 2 = 4, etc.

It is believed that in the medial temporal lobe is where the episodic memories are created and stored (within the hippocampus), but evidence also suggests that the pr-frontal cortex plays an important role as well, believed to be such because of experiments showing that when it is damaged, episodic memories are not created as easily.

It is not yet known for how long memories are stored within the hippocampus. Some say for forever, laying dormant, but others feel that the storage is only temporary and that they are erased to make room for new memories (with only the one’s of significance being stored forever). Notoriously, Alzheimer’s Disease, which  is known to erode memories, has been found to cause great damage to the hippocampus prior to damaging other parts of the brain. Alzheimer’s, which killed my own grandfather, eventually destroys all memories and makes the person a hollow shell of who they once were, before killing them off permanently.

Semantic memories tend to be about general facts that everyone remembers or should remember. They tend to be pertaining to general facts about society and the world and how things work, Such examples are what the capital of Spain is, or what a cell’s interior looks like, or that the sky is blue. They typically involve non-personal memories and do not require the individual to “travel back in time: to recall them like an episodic memory does. Both memories are LTM.

In my own life, it is not hard at all for me to recall many episodic memories. A few examples of such are my graduation from high school, the first time I moved out on my own, the first concert I attended, etc. I feel that with episodic memories, it is not hard to recall them and when they happened, but with semantic memories, it can be just as easy to recall or even more difficult. An example would be me absolutely hating math and not being able to recall those “general” facts about how to solve equations that every student has hammered into their heads in high school. I was the type of kid that would study and study for a math test for many hours, still not remembering much at all and on the day of the the test, I  would blank.

Semantic and episodic memories play such a vital role in our lives everyday and we do not even realize it.

Wede, J. (2017) Lesson 6: Episodic Memories. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site.

Wede, J. (2017) Lesson 6: Semantic Memories. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site.

# Bottom Up and Top Down Processing

Top down and bottom up processing refer to two different theories regarding how the brain processes information delivered via the senses. The former refers to the idea that the brain takes in the information as a whole and breaks it down to the tiniest, most minor aspects of itself. The latter refers to the idea that it all begins with individual elements that are taken in, one by one, and pieced together to get the entire structure as it truly is. Although it may not seem like there is much of a difference between the two, there actually is. Sensation and perception are complicated concepts that still have many unanswered questions surrounding them, such as those addressed in feature integration theory, which asks how exactly is information pieced together in a structure – is it just all one thing or is each individual aspect analyzed separately and the brain constructs it all together in the final product like that of a puzzle being assembled.

Regarding the actual processing itself, it all goes back to our senses. Years ago when I was a student at my former college, the University of Pittsburgh, and I took a class called Sensation and Perception, I realized that we don’t “see” through our eyes. What we actually “see” is our brain’s replication of what is before our eyes, via the use of electrical signals made from light after its transduction along our optical nerve. Likewise with our other senses such as auditory, it is our brain’s replication of a specific motion of sound waves. Top down processing and bottom up processing are two different arguments pertaining to how exactly this manner of information interpretation via our brain’s is done. Is it done from bottom to top, or top to bottom?

An example in my own life when I think of these processing methods is that of when one is approaching an object from afar and as the vision becomes clearer overall as ones nears said object, the details become more and more certain until one is close enough to see it in entirety and all of its details are clear as can be and one is fully aware of what is being viewed. This example of features being integrated from bottom up.

Wede, J. (2017) Lesson 4: Bottom Up Porcessing. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:

Wede, J. (2017) Lesson 4: Top Down Processing. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:

Goldstein, B. Sensation and Perception. 1980.

# Feature Integration Theory

Feature Integration Theory is a confusing and important theory often studied in modern psychology. It aims to answer the question of how exactly humans, as well as other organisms, integrate the features of things in the visual field in the grand perception of an object. The question is often asked whether or not the entirety of the object is placed together as a single subject or if it is individually placed together as one via the various features such as size, color, texture, etc.?

In terms of biology, different areas of the brain are specialized to process different things. Such is that of  vision, which is processed inside the occipital lobe, and human faces even have an area designated to their processing inside the temporal lobe. Interestingly enough, a part of the brain exists that is specifically designated with direction in terms of physical space and navigating the area to and from. Feature integration theory aims to discover just how exactly it is that the physical brain does this and how each individual piece is combined together, forming a single picture, which we perceive. Although it is a bit alarming, humans and all animals technically do not see through their eyes. Our visual perception is truly a replication of what is in front of us. Our brain is able to use color (which we perceive) for the sake of identifying light by its wavelength. All of this is how the brain is able to do such, but the exact mechanics are still not entirely understood.

Specialized neurons fire in the presence of light. Cells called cones and rods that rest upon upon the retina at our eyes’ back most wall fire in correspondence to the particular wavelength detected. Color is our mind’s manner of distinguishing different wavelengths form others after the light is transducted into chemical signals via the optical nerv, which is then expedited towards the visual cortex. Cones, which are specifically meant for brighter environments, have at least three different types and each of them correspond to either green, red, or blue color, respectively. Studies conducted via imaging techniques in laboratories have found that thirty two areas (at least) of the brain activate as this processing of the visual stimuli occurs once the light is transducted. This observation supports Feature Integration Theory’s belief that each individual aspect of an object is separately pieced together.

Treisman is the researcher who developed this theory. The experiment he performed to prove his point involving showing to numerous participants a picture that had four objects concealed via two numbers of black color. He flashed the portrayal for less than a second and proceeded via showing them a random dot masking field upon the screen for the sake of eradicating any and all “residual perception that might remain after the stimuli were turned off,” as he worded it. The instructions were for the participants to report which black numbers observed at each location where the shapes were prior seen. Treisman’s hypothesis was verified for it was found that during 18 percent of the time, the participants claimed to see shapes “made up of a combination of features from two different stimuli,” as Treisman worded it, and this was found true for the participants even as the stimuli had varied differences. This was dubbed “illusory conjunction” and is found to occur in real life scenarios at specific occasions. Feature Integration Theory justifies illusory conjunctions due to the fact that all features exist independently of one another as the early processing goes on and that if they are not apart of a specific object, the brain can make the error of falsely piecing them together.

In conclusion, the purpose of feature integration theory is that our brains somehow place together individual aspects of objects before our eyes. creating a single picture, which we perceive.

References:

Wede, J. (2017) Lesson 4: Feature Integration theory. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:

Goldstein, B. Sensation and Perception. 1980.

# Introduction

Hello, everyone my name is Syetta Berkley I am a Junior here at Penn State  with a major in Psychology . When I am not taking class I work, I currently work Full-time at a  medical school. I think it will be interesting to learn about ways that will better help the environment and other action that can be done to continue to take it. Also, learning about the advantages and disadvantages of climate change. No, this is not my first online class. I have been talking online since I started school, I find it flexible since I now work full- time.

Wishing everyone success on their career paths and goals…….

# Visual Imagery

A book is a friend that knows the secret to waking up its reader’s imagination. An artist enhances the imagination by sharing experiences associated with visual imagery.

My friend Amber is a gifted artist, who created the artwork for my children’s book. I remember our first meeting at her studio. Amber enthusiastically took her place at her state-of-the-art workstation. Her artist’s palette was smudged with sample watercolors that allowed me to visually roll in a surreal field of wildflowers. Her art books felt right at home on a family heirloom bookshelf. I selected one of the books, inhaled deeply and said, “It still has that wonderful, musty, library smell.”

Amber reached for a seasoned charcoal pencil then focused her energy and talent on a sketchpad she took almost everywhere. She immediately started creating characters as I verbally described them. Within minutes, she had the lisianthus and monarch butterfly sketched, much to my amazement. She visited my gardens on many occasions and could visualize the flowers and butterfly, which frequented the gardens as well. We “clinked” our ice tea glasses as a sign of good things to come.

Now is the perfect opportunity for me to share the power and beauty of visual imagery as it applies to artists. Visual imagery allows us to see in the absence of visual stimuli. (Goldstein, Bruce E. 2011) I dared to think that visual imagery might be an art form in and of itself.

Some researchers suggest that visual imagery is the result of perception, and that artists benefit from bottom-up processing. If that were the case then electromagnetic energy (light) would focus an image from a visual stimulus onto Amber’s retina. That energy would then be converted into action potentials through the process of transduction and sent to her brain. (Lesson 3) The end result is perception, which is a function of the visual cortex. However, it has been suggested that the transduction associated with perception doesn’t apply to visual/mental imagery (recreation of the sensory world in absence of physical stimuli), and that imagery originates as a top-down process. (Goldstein, Bruce E. 2011) The cerebral cortex (grey matter) is defined as a higher brain area responsible for many cognitive functions such as perception, memory, thought, creativity, abstraction, and synthesis of movements. Because there is no visual input to be processed by the visual cortex, visual/mental images are the result of knowledge, expectations, and experiences, which reflect top-down processing. (Goldstein, Bruce E. 2011)

Researchers using a voxel-based morphometry scanning devices determined that artists have more grey matter in a part of their brains called the precuenus, which is located in the parietal lobe. This region might be linked to visual imagery and the ability to “manipulate visual images in the brain, combine them and deconstruct them.” (Hogenboom, Melissa 2014) Additional research suggests that artists have more grey and white matter in the cerebellum, which is responsible for the fine tuning of motor movements that make those movements more adaptive and accurate. (Knierim, James, Ph.D. n.yr.)

Other research builds a case for nature vs. nurture in that an artist may have a genetic predisposition for artistic talent, and that environmental upbringing and training are influential in terms of cultivating the talent. (Hogenbroom, Melissa 2014) Amber’s mother was a gifted artist as well.

I hope you experienced visual and mental imagery as a result of “visiting” Amber’s studio. Her visual imagery and apparent top-down processing assisted with the book’s character creation. Although I do not share the elements critical for the visual imagery that may define an artist, I appreciate the power of the brain areas that activate the visual and metal images.

Works Cited

Goldstein, Bruce E. “Glossary.” Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience. 3rd Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Copyright 2011, 2008. pp. 270, 274.

Web Publications

Swenson, Rand, DC, MD, Ph.D. “Chapter 11: The Cerebral Cortex: General Organization.” Review of Clinical and Functional Neuroscience. Dartmouth Medical School. ©Swenson 2006. Web 28 July 2016.

https://www.dartmouth.edu/~rswenson/NeuroSci/chapter_11.html

Hogenboom, Melissa. Artists ‘have structurally different brains.’ BBC News. Science and Environment. © 2016 BBC. Web 28 July 2016.

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-26925271

Knierim, James, Ph.D. “Cerebellum: Section 3, Chapter 5.” Neurosciences Online. ©1997-Present. The University of Texas Health Science Center.

http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s3/chapter05.html

# An accurate memory

Memories are something amazing. For some you think about them in your mind and they play for you like a movie. If the event had a significant impact on you, you can remember almost everything regarding it: the weather, the conversations during it, any music that may have been playing. You might even remember yourself…in third person. Which of course is inaccurate. How can you imagine yourself in third person? It seems unlikely that memories that seem more vivid and accurate aren’t so, but more often than not, this is the case.

I have a few memories like that, an example of one is first time I got to see my little brother. I remember it like it was yesterday:

My auntie came to pick me up from school, which was unusual. Usually my mom came to get me. I remember that it was a warm day, and that I had my sweater tied around my waist as we walked down the street. I noticed that we weren’t taking the usual way route home so I questioned we where we going. My auntie told me that it was a surprise. She dropped me off with my stepfather who was waiting with my 3 older step-siblings. We all went to the hospital to see my new brother. When we got to my mother’s room I gave her kisses and a hug and promptly flipped back the curtain to see if my brother was on the other side. I asked her “mommy, where’s your baby at?” and my entire family looked at me in collective confusion (they also laughed). “TJ, your brother’s right there” “Where?”, now my mom looked at me with concern “TJ, don’t you see your brother laying there?”. She gestured towards the baby in the basinet towards her feet. And I had seen the baby, I looked down at him momentarily before checking behind the curtain. I looked at my mother in her eyes and told her “Na-uh, that’s not my brother because that baby is white!” (my family and I are all black).

That story has been told time and time again from various perspectives, at various family functions, and at varying levels of soberness. Which just causes me to question, “how accurate is my memory?”. I was only 6 when my little brother was born, and I’m sure I’ve heard the story hundreds of times. Is my memory the memory of what actually happened? Or a smorgasbord of all the retellings I’ve heard over the years. Human memories are known to be imperfect. Yet, we still count on our memories to help the law catch criminals and to help us save lives. I think that the narrative rehearsal hypothesis (Goldstein, 2011) can be used to explain why my memory seems so accurate to me. Because of my family’s retelling of the event, sometimes with the added photos taken in the hospital room, I have most likely concocted my own version of what really happened that that. I find it so interesting the faith we have in our memories knowing that they can be faulty.

Goldstein, E. B. (2011). Memory for “Exceptional” Events . In E. B. Goldstein, Cognitive Psychology (pp. 208-213). Belmont: Wadsworth.

# Spacial Perception to guide your Hike

In today’s world travelling in a car require a GPS in order to get around. The days of paper maps have long since been dated. Yet, there are occasions that maps are needed when there is not GPS coverage.  One such place is at the North end of the Grand Canyon to South end via a walking trail through the valley below. In order to traverse through the valley there are certain skills that are needed from a directional point of view; Map, 3d visual perception; height, length, and depth, and decision factor.

One of the items needed is a Map, the map I found was developed in two dimensions and so I had to find another map for depth (Topography). These maps did not lay out how the actual trails were in the valley between each area but enough information to help develop a mental map.

Once the map was analyzed for its data and imbedded in the mind, it became a 3d work of mental art, so I seemed. Over the course of the first mile, it was concluded that the mental image of the map is actually different from the actual trail as the point of reference changes. This visual confirmation corrected the brain map to coincide with the perception noted. I continued to hike another mile and more changes to the perception of the trail to my mental map. Once the mental map was finally adjusted, at every break I would scan my mental map and determine the next miles of hiking. The difference in my mental visual perception was that now mentally I was spinning the mental map in my head as I visualized the trail. Depending on the difficulty, I would lay out my hike pattern within 2 miles or 5 miles. The 2 miles was faster to map then the 5 miles.

The third aspect was the decisions that had to be made based on water signs, they were determined when studying the actual physical map, on the mental visual map.  These decisions also were on outside temperature, humidity, and fatigue factor. Each one was a sensory input that had to analyzed and incorporated to the decision for the hike success.

In each factor of navigation though the Grand Canyon relied on mental visualization and the perception of the trail relative to the orientation of where I faced (North, South). Spatial layout of the Grand Canyon with the trail and the topography made the journey without unnecessary stress. Yet, using “tacit knowledge explanation because it states that participants unconsciously use knowledge about the world in making their decisions” (Goldstein, 2011) But it is clear that when I visualized several different distances, it did take longer to determine visual representations of the distance on the trail to each goal. This is because as I visualized the trail, I kept imagining, based on experience, that the topography changes and adds or reduces the hike resistance therefore, making my decision to reach next hiking goal meaningful. Ultimately, my mental map guided the decision tree as all inputs; visual and biometrics were assessed contributed to a successful hike efficiently complete in 12 hours.

Reference

Cognitive Psychology, Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience, E. Bruce Goldstein, 2011

# Visual Imagery in Problem Solving

When I was in elementary school, I got to skip math class. At the time, that was all I knew – every day, when the rest of my class went to math, 5 other kids and I went into a separate room down the hall for ELO. I later found out that ELO (which stands for Extended Learning Opportunities) was a special class for kids who already met our grades’ math standards, meant to help us develop additional learning skills instead of making us repeat simple arithmetic at which we had already proven ourselves sufficient. In ELO, we mostly did puzzles: we completed tangrams almost every day, were given a constant supply of 3-dimensional “break-apart” puzzles, and completed more riddles and word puzzles than I can count. This blog post, however, isn’t about how I got to play games instead of going to math class – it is about the valuable visual imagery skills I developed while playing them.

In high school sculpture and art classes, I had some classmates point out to me that I am strangely good at figuring out shapes and compositions; I had never noticed this ability before, but I could very easily draw different perspectives of objects or still-lifes that my fellow students had more difficulty with. It is well known that mental images can be rotated in our minds just like they can be physically rotated in our hands (Shepard and Metzler, 1971), and that it becomes easier to mentally rotate objects that we are more familiar with (Cooper and Shepard, 1973). Because of this combination of factors, I believe that my practice with shape-puzzles like tangrams (fitting small laminated shapes to fit a specific pattern or mold) and 3-dimensional riddle puzzles in elementary school has contributed to my affinity for physically fitting things together. Since I had so much practice with so many combinations of shapes and objects, I have somehow maintained the ability to mentally rotate many things I encounter to solve puzzles and visualize interesting perspectives for my art pieces. These visual imagery skills have proven immensely helpful to me, as I love making art and playing with interesting perspectives of bodies and geometric shapes, and being able to mentally create compositions allows me to translate my ideas on to paper. The skills I developed also greatly helped me with problem solving, as I can apply aspects of visual imagery and manipulation to generate ideas.

The development of problem-solving skills should not only be applied to my case – there have been studies about the increased “cognitive load” of students who are allowed practice with puzzles and other problem-solving activities and the benefits these students have later in their education and lives (Paas and Van Merrienboer, 1994).

References:

Goldstein, E. B. (2011). Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience. Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience (3rd ed.)(pp. 23 – 45). Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Shepard, R. N., & Metzler, J. (1971). Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science171(3972), 701–703.

Cooper, L. A., & Shepard, R. N. (1973). Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. In W. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing. Oxford, England: Academic Press.

# Visual Imagery

Lisianthus & Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus)

A book is a friend that knows the secret to waking up its reader’s imagination. An artist enhances the imagination by sharing experiences associated with visual imagery.

My friend Amber is a gifted artist, who created the artwork for my children’s book. I remember our first meeting at her studio. Amber enthusiastically took her place at her state-of-the-art workstation. Her artist’s palette was smudged with sample watercolors that allowed me to visually roll in a surreal field of wildflowers. Her art books felt right at home on a family heirloom bookshelf. I selected one of the books, inhaled deeply and said, “It still has that wonderful, musty, library smell.”

Amber reached for a seasoned charcoal pencil then focused her energy and talent on a sketchpad she took almost everywhere. She immediately started creating characters as I verbally described them. Within minutes, she had the lisianthus and monarch butterfly sketched, much to my amazement. She visited my gardens on many occasions and could visualize the flowers and butterfly, which frequented the gardens as well. We “clinked” our ice tea glasses as a sign of good things to come.

Now is the perfect opportunity for me to share the power and beauty of visual imagery as it applies to artists. Visual imagery allows us to see in the absence of visual stimuli. (Goldstein, Bruce E. 2011) I dared to think that visual imagery might be an art form in and of itself.

Some researchers suggest that visual imagery is the result of perception, and that artists benefit from bottom-up processing. If that were the case then electromagnetic energy (light) would focus an image from a visual stimulus onto Amber’s retina. That energy would then be converted into action potentials through the process of transduction and sent to her brain. (Lesson 3) The end result is perception, which is a function of the visual cortex. However, it has been suggested that the transduction associated with perception doesn’t apply to visual/mental imagery (recreation of the sensory world in absence of physical stimuli), and that imagery originates as a top-down process. (Goldstein, Bruce E. 2011) The cerebral cortex (grey matter) is defined as a higher brain area responsible for many cognitive functions such as perception, memory, thought, creativity, abstraction, and synthesis of movements. Because there is no visual input to be processed by the visual cortex, visual/mental images are the result of knowledge, expectations, and experiences, which reflect top-down processing. (Goldstein, Bruce E. 2011)

Researchers using a voxel-based morphometry scanning devices determined that artists have more grey matter in a part of their brains called the precuenus, which is located in the parietal lobe. This region might be linked to visual imagery and the ability to “manipulate visual images in the brain, combine them and deconstruct them.” (Hogenboom, Melissa 2014) Additional research suggests that artists have more grey and white matter in the cerebellum, which is responsible for the fine tuning of motor movements that make those movements more adaptive and accurate. (Knierim, James, Ph.D. n.yr.)

Other research builds a case for nature vs. nurture in that an artist may have a genetic predisposition for artistic talent, and that environmental upbringing and training are influential in terms of cultivating the talent. (Hogenbroom, Melissa 2014) Amber’s mother was a gifted artist as well.

I hope you experienced visual and mental imagery as a result of “visiting” Amber’s studio. Her visual imagery and apparent top-down processing assisted with the book’s character creation. Although I do not share the elements critical for the visual imagery that may define an artist, I appreciate the power of the brain areas that activate the visual and metal images.

Works Cited

Goldstein, Bruce E. “Glossary.” Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience. 3rd Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Copyright 2011, 2008. pp. 270, 274.

Web Publications

Swenson, Rand, DC, MD, Ph.D. “Chapter 11: The Cerebral Cortex: General Organization.” Review of Clinical and Functional Neuroscience. Dartmouth Medical School. ©Swenson 2006. Web 28 July 2016.

https://www.dartmouth.edu/~rswenson/NeuroSci/chapter_11.html

Hogenboom, Melissa. Artists ‘have structurally different brains.’ BBC News. Science and Environment. © 2016 BBC. Web 28 July 2016.

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-26925271

Knierim, James, Ph.D. “Cerebellum: Section 3, Chapter 5.” Neurosciences Online. ©1997-Present. The University of Texas Health Science Center.

http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s3/chapter05.html