Author Archives: John Luken

Procrastination

Just hours until the deadline, I could not help but to think why I procrastinate so much. Why did I leave assignments until the latest possible time? I began to question whether procrastination is genetic or if it is a learned trait. Also I wondered if procrastination could be a good thing as well.

A study shows that 20 percent of people chronically look for other things to do when there is a more difficult task at hand. People that procrastinate say that they “perform better under pressure” (Psych Today). This statement has no evidence to back it up though and so we cannot directly link procrastination to working better under pressure from this.

A genetics study showed that, “procrastination is moderately heritable, and that genetically it was not separate from impulsivity” (Psych Today 2). This does not mean that procrastination is an impulse; it is about a person’s time management as well as goal setting and completing abilities.

A study was done with identical and fraternal twins to see whether procrastination was genetic or if it was just because of the family environment that a person was raised in. The research found that 46 percent of the variance in procrastination has a genetic contribution (Psych Today 2). Now this does not mean that procrastination is all genetic, but the study found that there is most likely a little genetic effect on whether a person procrastinates or not.

University of San Diego professor Frank Partnoy believes that procrastination can be a good thing. He claims that the longer we wait, the more we can asses the situation and make the correct decision about how we are going to go about doing our task at hand. He also says that procrastination has just become a part of our society and that if he had an academic paper due on September 1, people would begin to question him if he turned it in early, in the month of August (Smithsonian).

Although peer pressure and the “social norm” may have an affect on our procrastination, this anecdote may not be entirely the best. He may seem to have a point but this could just be his excuse for never completing tasks well in advance. Also not every task has to be analyzed for a long time before we begin, so in some cases waiting until the last minute might not have any benefit at all.

A survey done on more than 24,000 people around the world found that 95 percent of people confess to at least occasional procrastination and 25 percent of these people are chronic procrastinators (NY Times). Dr. Steel believes that this is due to the changing of society and the flexibility of jobs. This may be true, but procrastination could be caused by other variables so just singling out our changing lifestyle is very unlikely.

There are some links to genetics that suggest that procrastination is determined by a person’s genetic makeup, but to reject the null hypothesis, that procrastination is not genetic, would be getting ahead of things. The evidence is there to show that the way we live may have an effect on how much and when we procrastinate but saying that this is the reason we procrastinate cannot be entirely true. There are many things that can affect our procrastination and many of us wish that we did not procrastinate as much.

Resources:

Psych Today

Psych Today 2

Smithsonian

NY Times

What are Dreams?

Halloween is right around the corner and so it is scary movie season. I wanted to watch a horror movie the other day and my roommate did not want to because he said that they give him nightmares. Personally, I do not have nightmares that often, either that or I do not remember them because I don’t tend to remember my dreams. This got me to start thinking about dreams and what they actually are.

Dreams are images, thoughts, sounds, and sensations that people can experience when they sleep. Dreams can be anything, ranging from the things that had happened to a person the previous day or the most secret fantasy that a person may have. In How Stuff Works’ article, they explain that if a person has stress building up in their life, they can link their stressful dreams to this real world stress.

Dreams occur the most during the R.E.M. state of sleep and this is when the dreams are most often remembered when a person wakes up in the morning. During R.E.M. a person experiences skeletal paralysis so that a person does not act out the dreams that they are having while they sleep. This stage can last for as long as 30 minutes and also can only a minute or two (How Stuff Works).

Many of the dreams that we have will never be remembered and scientists say that this is due to the time we wake up during the dreams. A study showed that when subjects wore red goggles before going to bed, they were more likely to remember red images in their dreams (How Stuff Works).

The hippocampus is the storage for memories of events that occur during the day and what has happened many days ago. Studies show that at night when a person is sleeping, a person’s brain transfers memories from the hippocampus to the cerebral cortex, which is the part of the brain that processes information and turns it into knowledge. A study in animals found that the neural activity replays the events that a person occurred throughout the day so that they will remember what has happened (Quora).

A nightmare is a dream that occurs, giving a person strong feelings of terror or anxiety. This type of dream usually occurs later into the night and is remembered at a much higher rate if the person is woken up from the nightmare. Nightmares can be a reaction to stress and some believe that the more you have nightmares, the more you will be able to cope with stressful situations (Psychology Today).

So although scientists are not able to directly find the reason to why we have dreams, they have some interesting theories of how memories are transferred through the brain. In the study of the people wearing red goggles before going to sleep, I would like to see more studies done to see if it was just by chance that these people saw more red images. The alternative hypothesis being that the red goggles do cause more red objects to turn up in a person’s dreams however from the evidence that I have seen, we cannot reject the null hypothesis just yet. There may have been confounding variables, like the person thought about dreaming of red objects just because they knew what the study was researching.

Resources:

How Stuff Works

Quora

Psychology Today

A Hug a Day Will Keep the Doctor Away

There is something comforting about embracing in a nice warm hug with your mom or dad, but is there actual science behind it? Or is it just something we have grown accustomed to doing? An apple a day keeps the doctor away… Does a hug a day do the same?

Just a little hug can lower blood pressure and within ten seconds levels of oxytocin increase and levels of cortisol decrease. Oxytocin is a feel-good hormone and cortisol is a stress chemical. Hugging some one regularly can lower the risk of heart disease and can have many other health benefits. Dr. Jan Astrom said, “The positive emotional experience of hugging gives rise to biochemical and physiological reactions” (Daily Mail).

In men and women aged 20 to 49 hugs for more than ten seconds found that levels of different hormones had changed. More in depth research showed that the vagus nerve is a link between the skin, the brain, as well as oxytocin receptors. One theory is that when this nerve is triggered, there is an increase in oxytocin in the body (Daily Mail). This however is just a theory and just because two things happen at the same time, doesn’t mean that they are directly related, because correlation does not mean causation.

The journal, Psychological Science, published research that showed that hugs reduce the amount of worrying about mortality. The study showed that hugging helped calm individuals’ fears, even if the object that a person is hugging is not another person (Huff Post).

Researchers found that hugging and physical touch become increasingly important with age. The study showed that loneliness, with age, could cause an increased level of stress and have negative side effects because of this. Hugging someone causes us to instantly feel closer to that person and then in turn decrease feelings of being alone (Huff Post).

In an article published by Barrington Brennen, hugging someone for can have a wide variety of benefits. Research shows that hugs give a sense of a meaningful connection with others and also is linked to reducing blood pressure and the risk of heart disease (Oxytocin).

Research in Germany came to the conclusion that levels of oxytocin can protect your marriage. When a group of 57 men were blindfolded and given either oxytocin or a placebo nasal spray, a female walked up to them and they were told to let the woman know when she was too close for comfort. When they study was over, the men who were given the oxytocin or were in monogamous relationships preferred to keep a significantly greater distance from the woman. The conclusion was that oxytocin promotes monogamy because the men that were in relationships were not as interested in the temptress. This all could have happened by chance but that seems unlikely because of the 57 test subjects, the relationship bound men and the men given the oxytocin were less likely to capitulate to the woman’s temptations (Oxytocin).

Putting all of this together, I have come to the conclusion that hugging is good for you, but how good is it for you I am not completely sure about. There are benefits that are linked to hugging, but I am not sure what is actually casual and what is just a coincidence or what happened just because of chance. Does just being in the presence of someone that you love increase your levels of oxytocin even if you do not make physical contact with that person? Maybe further research would be able to find that out.

Resources:

Daily Mail

Huff Post

Oxytocin (Research)

Electronics in the Bedroom

Every night before I go to sleep I am always using my phone, even when I say I want to go to bed at a decent time, I always seem to stay up later than I intended too. I was thinking about this and decided to look into whether it is bad for you? And if it is bad for me, in what ways is it bad?

Photoreceptors in the retina sense light and dark, which then signals our brain about what is happening around us and aligning our sleep patterns. This allows us to be awake and ready in the morning and to be able to fall asleep at night. This is natural when the light we are exposed to is from the sun, as it is almost the same every single day (Sleep Foundation). But when we are exposed to the light of an electronic device, what happens then?

Studies have shown that even small electronic devices will give off enough light to promote wakefulness. Adults and even children are susceptible to this and we might have to be careful. This light exposure at night can negatively impact sleep time, sleep quality, and daytime alertness. Children need this valuable sleep time because, “Sleep is essential for growth, learning, mood, creativity, and weight control” (Sleep Foundation).

These sleep patterns are affected by our use of electronics and a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that this could even affect our long-term health. Researchers then set out to find out what changes in the body cause these disruptions that are caused by the use of electronic gadgets (Wash Post).

A study was conducted for two weeks, one group of participants were asked to read on an iPad for four hours before bed five nights a week, while the others were asked to do the same but with printed books in dim light. Researches found that the people that were using the iPads had decreases levels of melatonin, which increases in the evening and helps make a person feel tired. These people also took longer to fall asleep and reported being sleepier as well as less alert the following morning (Wash Post).

One problem with this study is that the sample size is just too small, so we have to be careful about generalizing. Another problem is that only one type of device was tested, the iPad, and maybe this is the only device that causes a decrease in melatonin.

Sleep loss is becoming more and more of an issue with more and more electronic usage. This can begin to cause serious problems, for example, suppression of levels of melatonin has been linked to an increased risk of getting certain types of cancer. Adding to this, lack of sleep has been associated with obesity and diabetes (NICABM).

Although these studies say that there is a link between these things, there are always third variables that can affect the outcome of these findings. These cancers, obesity, and diabetes can also be linked to numerous other different factors so pin-pointing it on the using electronic devices cannot be entirely correct. There are many different lifestyles that people choose that can affect these as well. So just because these results show that increased electronic usage is connected with these health problems, they are not necessarily because correlation does not equal causation.

So similar to the study with the rats and their melatonin levels and activity in the hippocampus, we cannot say with certainty that staying up late using electronic devices causes these health problems. So maybe using these electronics makes us stay up later resulting in a lack of sleep and that is the cause of the health issues, more research would have to be done to figure this out!

Resources:

Sleep Foundation

Wash Post

NICABM

Early Bird vs. Night Owl

Does the early bird get the worm? Maybe, but the second mouse gets the cheese… Staying up late every night just mindlessly surfing through my phone instead of writing these blog posts, I wondered when the most effective time to sleep is, whether its staying up late and sleeping in, or going to bed early and waking up at the crack of dawn. So I decided to look into it a little further.

According to AsapSCIENCE’s Video, the personal preference of being an early bird or a night owl is entirely genetic. Those who wake up early tend to have more positive social traits such as being proactive and optimistic, while nights owls are more likely to be creative and higher cognitive abilities. As for energy throughout the day, both groups had the same reaction times one hour after waking up. However, ten hours later, studies show that night owls perform significantly better.

Studies have also shown that a single change in your gene called “Per1” can result in an hour difference in your waking time. With this same gene, scientists have found that if you are an early riser, you are more likely to die around 11 am and if you are a night owl you are more likely to die during the evening (Video). As SC200 students, we know that these findings may not be casual, but could just be merely a coincidence.

Sleeping patterns can cause conflict between roommates in college all because of our biological clocks, scientifically known as circadian rhythm. Different people have different lengths of natural cycles and this could be the connection to early birds and night owls. A person’s circadian rhythm may change over the course of a person’s lifetime, as children are more likely to be early risers, and teenagers tend to stay up late, and then as they age, people generally transition back into being early birds (WebMD).

A study from the University of Toronto says that people that are early risers tend to have more regular sleeping patterns, more flexible personalities, and tend to be happier and feel healthier than night owls (2). On the other hand, the study showed that night owls are more likely to be more depressed, have a higher dependence on caffeine, and use alcohol more (WebMD). These results are a little strange because it only shows light on the good aspects of early birds and only the bad effects of being a night owl. In my opinion I think that this may be a result of the file drawer problem because it is more than likely that there are some negatives of waking up early and also positives of staying up late. This article shows biased and because of this we cannot come to conclusion that is certain.

A professor of psychology at Penn State, Frederick Brown, says, “People span the range of those who are very early risers to very late settlers, and this is genetically determined” (LiveScience). The mechanism for these patterns is set within our circadian rhythm. Brown then goes on by saying that people have variances to their circadian rhythm and half of the population is neither a morning person nor an evening person. These people can change the hours at which they sleep without it affecting anything significant. Studies have found that around 17% of people clearly have a “delayed sleep phase,” in which they get tired later in the day than normal. Adding to this, only 1% of people have an “advanced sleep phase,” which means that they get tired in the early afternoon but are well awake before the sun comes up in the morning (LiveScience).

Putting all of this together, we know that there are definitely morning people and late night people but as to which is better, would almost be impossible to determine. The positives of one may appeal to someone more than the positives of the other. Also, just because you are a morning person, does not mean that you have the characteristic traits of a morning person and vice versa, it is just more likely.

Resources:

Video

WebMD

LiveScience

The Placebo Effect

In class, we have talked about whether research is experimental or observational. The experimental studies that have been conducted as double blind randomized control trials have both an experimental group and a control group. In the control group in clinical trials, there is a placebo that is given to the patients for example, so that they are unaware of which group they have been randomly placed in. This made me think about placebos and made me wonder how much of an impact psychologically a placebo can have. In other words, do placebos make people think that they are getting treated and as a result think that they being affected but in reality they are not? In this cause the patient think that the drug or substance they are given caused certain results, but as we know… Correlation does not always equal causation.

Research has shown that when a placebo treatment is given, it may cause positive effects towards a person even if the actual treatment is not in fact the treatment given to the patient. This phenomenon is know as, “The placebo effect” (Drugs.com). This article goes on to explain that this phenomenon happens in a small but noticeable percent of people in certain studies. One of these studies is a study done on patients with Parkinson’s disease and it shows that the when the patient is given a placebo, dopamine has been activated in the brain (Drugs.com). This shows that although the patient is not given the actual treatment, their brains may be tricked into thinking that they have, leading to the placebo effect.

On the other hand, a meta-analysis of 202 trials, that compared trials that have placebo treatments and no placebo treatments, found that there was no major health benefits from the placebos. However, it did have an impact on what the patients reported, and the authors contributed this to the way the trials were set up or how the patients were informed about their treatments (Drugs.com).

The American Cancer Society also says that there is a link between the brain’s response and a placebo. Although it is very difficult to make conclusions, many think that the placebo effect happens because, “the patient believes in the substance, the treatment, or the doctor” (ACS). This means that the patient expects to feel better so in the short-term, the patient does feel a little better.

Researchers are also looking into an effect called, “the nocebo effect,” which is when a person has negative side effects after they are given a placebo. Many believe that this is explained by messages that are sent through the nervous system. For example, when a person is anxious, this substance in the body is activated and the person in turn then feels more pain than a person who is not anxious (ACS). So what this means is that if someone is expecting something to hurt or be painful, they are more likely to feel more pain than a person who is calm and not expecting pain.

Ted Kaptchuk conducted a randomized clinical drug trial where some patients were given a pain relieving medicine and the others went to acupuncture to help relieve pain. Only two weeks into his first trial, “nearly a third of his 270 subjects complained of awful side effects” (Harvard Magazine). This was found to be rather odd and when Keptchuk said, “The side effects were simply amazing,” he explained that this was exactly what these treatments might produce (Harvard Magazine). What made this study even more confusing was that even more of his subjects found these pain remedies to be successful, and the acupuncture worked better than the painkillers. Nobody had ever proven this before and neither did Kaptchuk… His study was conducted with cornstarch pills and retractable shams that did not even pierce the skin. So this study was not conducted to compare these two treatments, it was to compare the two fakes! (Harvard Magazine)

Later on in the article, Kaptchuk goes on to say, “Sham treatment won’t shrink tumors or cure viruses,” but he does not reject the alternative in that you can simply think yourself better when you are tricked into thinking that you have been given a treatment (Harvard Magazine). His challenge now is to find a mechanism for the placebo effect and the psychological responses. Last year, he created the Program in Placebo Studies and the Therapeutic Encounter, headquartered at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Harvard Magazine).

So the answer is not completely known, Kaptchuk is still searching for an explanation behind the placebo effect. Both positive and negative reactions have come from the placebo effect so we cannot say whether the placebo effect is truly evident in all cases but we are making progress toward the understanding. Not only is Kaptchuk interested in this specifically, but also he is interested in whether or not we can increase the placebo effect in certain ways and see if this can be more effective than the actual treatments themselves (Harvard Magazine). Now wouldn’t that be interesting…

Resources:

American Cancer Society (ACS)

Drugs.com

Harvard Magazine

What is better for you? A hot shower? or a cold shower?

Personally, I have always been a fan of a nice warm shower when I get up in the morning or when I get home from practice. A couple of my friends were talking and they said that they prefer to take cold showers. Dumbfounded, I wanted to see if there were any benefits to either of the two shower temperature preferences.

Taking a warm shower has always felt more comfortable to me. This may be due to the fact that taking a warm shower can relieve tension and soothe muscles. A study even showed that taking a hot shower can increase your oxytocin levels which helps deal with anxiety. Adding to this, a hot shower can cause steam to go into your nasal passages and clear them out and can even help break a fever (Pop Sugar).

On the other hand, cold showers have never been my favorite but do have benefits as well. Turning the shower to cold for four to five minutes in the morning can help increase alertness and help combat fatigue, perfect for that eight A.M. class!! Also, cold showers are better for helping with dry skin as well as the split ends in your hair (Pop Sugar).

After exercise, people question whether again to take a cold or a hot shower. Dr. Mercola says that taking a cold shower after working out will decrease your heart rate and increase circulation and blood flow throughout your body. This helps with recovering muscles and in a study, researchers found that cold showers were more effective in reducing the amount of soreness in the body (Peak Fitness).

Hot showers also have added benefits to a person’s health. The hot water from a shower can help relieve pains in the muscles, tendons and tissues throughout the body. Hot water can also help clean a person’s skin and pores but shouldn’t be too hot for too long (Live Strong).

So all together, both cold showers and hot showers have their positives. It is too difficult to tell which is better, but personal preference is a key factor for me when it comes to taking a shower. So maybe next time try a different shower temperature!!

Sources:

Pop Sugar

Peak Fitness

Live Strong

Can money buy happiness?

I was listening to some music on my phone, when a certain song came up that made me start to think. Buy Me A Boat, by Chris Janson, has lyrics that say, “money can’t buy happiness, but it can buy me a boat.” I found this quite humorous and began to think about the cliché saying that money can’t buy happiness.

If you just think about it, generally speaking people that have higher incomes do not have to struggle to get by in life so they are most likely happier. According to the Wall Street Journal, money cannot alone make a persons life better, but what truly matters is what that person does with that money (Wall Street Journal). Those who give back, or make donations are more likely to feel better about themselves and in turn be happier. Another study done by Stanford Graduate School of Business shows that the most satisfying way to spend one’s money is by investing it into others, and those who give away one dollar have been proven to feel better about themselves. In this same article, it says that spending even just a little money will help improve our well-being and even our lives.

Time article says that there are five ways that money can in fact buy happiness; “Buy moments not stuff, Spend on others, Buy small splurges, Buy what you like, and Spend with others” (Time). The article goes on to describe each one and says that you have to spend your money wisely if you want to be happy. The researchers say that you should spend your money on experiences and not items because they will create memories that will last forever. Adding to this, buying gifts for others or giving back will make you feel good about yourself, so the more money you have, the more you are able to give away. Another way to use your money is by spending it to do activities with your friends and family, which will also create lasting memories (Time).

As US News puts it, “Money can’t buy you happiness, goes the generally accepted wisdom that was probably made up by someone poor, who wanted to bring his rich friends down a few notches.” This statement is not entirely true but it does back up the side saying that rich people can buy a few things that will make them happy. So in the end, money can only bring people happiness if they do the right thing with it. If they give back and use their money to make memories with the people that mean the most to them, yes, they will most likely be happy.

Sources:

Wall Street Journal

Stanford Graduate School of Business

Time

US News

Why does deja vu happen?

I was working on homework the other day and I got up to get a bottle of water out of my fridge when I got a feeling as if I had been in this exact spot doing the exact same thing before. It was deja vu for me and it was a weird sensation that I wanted to more about.

The feeling that I had of familiarity is called déjà vu which is a French word that means “already seen” (Real Clear Science). From this same article, it goes on to say that this sensation occurs randomly to around 60-80% of people. This is very hard to study because it happens randomly and the only information knowing about this is the people who report that they had deja vu.

Although deja vu is difficult to study, testing familiarity with faces or people can be tested. In a study, researchers found that when people were exposed to people and places that seemed familiar to them, the part of the brain that was being used was the perirhinal cortex (Brain Facts). Adding to this, when people are able to decipher whether they have seen these people or places before, the part of the brain being used is the parahippocampal cortex. Thus the linking factor between the two is the hippocampus, where both of the two parts of the brain relay messages. Scientists believe this is where we get the feeling of deja vu from (Brain Facts).

As to why deja vu actually occurs, scientists are not completely sure, but they do know that it most likely has to do with certain links between parts of the brain. So, maybe you know the people and places you are seeing and maybe you are just having a deja vu!

Sources:

Real Clear Science

Brain Facts

How Stuff Works

 

Do batting gloves help a baseball player?

Growing up playing baseball, I used batting gloves and at times I did not use batting gloves. In little league and all throughout high school I never really thought about whether I had a better batting average with one or the other so I figured that I would look into it a little further.

Even in Major League Baseball, some players choose to wear batting gloves and others choose not to. For example, Jorge Posada says, “The way the bat feels in my hands; I like to feel the pine tar, I like to feel the dirt, I like to feel the tape I put on the bat, and I like to feel the wood on the bat” (NY Times). He is one of the players that has a preference not to wear them because he says the feel is much better and that gives him an advantage. Another player, Moises Alou, says that he likes to not wear batting gloves because it stings him if the ball hits the wrong part of the bat and that is his incentive to make better contact (NY Times).

Batting gloves

Although the players that say batting gloves give them a better feel, players who do use batting gloves say some of the same things about feel and connectedness with the bat and their hands. A scientist says that the, “gloves may help some batters by giving a more secure feel to the grip early in the swing — that is when aiming counts because once the swing is under way, it is too late to fine-tune the bat’s trajectory” (NY Times). This shows that it comes down to personal preference because both the players that wear them and the players that do not wear them both say that their choice helps them.

Other than feel, do batting gloves serve any other purpose? Yes, says Cal Ripken Jr. who played for the Baltimore Orioles. He says that one little slip of the bat in your hands will affect your grip and in turn cause you not to make perfect connection with the ball. This would cause the ball to travel shorter distances, if the ball is hit at all (Baltimore Sun).

Summing up whether or not batting gloves have any additional benefit, it depends on what each individual player likes and what feels the most comfortable for that player. There are other ways, such as using dirt or pine tar, in order to prevent the bat from slipping out of your hands.

Sources:

NY Times

Baltimore Sun

Batting Gloves Image 

How Do Performance Enhancing Drugs Impact Athletic Performance?

I have been playing sports since I was a little child. I started skiing when I was three, playing baseball when I was five and have tried a wide variety of different sports. As I got older, the competition of these sports increased at incredible rates and with this added level of competition the pressure to become as fast and strong as possible increased as well. I played sports in high school to have fun and to pass the time so I was never too competitive. However, this made me start thinking about how easily kids could be pressured into thinking about using performance enhancing drugs, or PEDs.

Lately on the news I have seen numerous cases of athletes being penalized for using PEDs or other banned substances to improve their athletic performance in all different types of sports. Just a couple examples are the three superstars in Major League Baseball who were caught using steroids; Roger Clemens, Barry Bonds, and Alex Rodriguez. Although both Clemens and Bonds denied using PEDs, Rodriguez confessed to using them. He claimed that he used anabolic steroids to recover quicker from an injury. In an article in the Scientific American, it says, “Anabolic steroids promote tissue growth, and, in particular, muscle generation – which is why they have become so popular in athletics.”

There are various short term benefits that steroids have on the human body that give an advantage to athletes. Taking anabolic steroids can increase your muscle and size without even lifting weights, but it is best used to help athletes work harder and then recover faster after their workout. They will then be able to train again the next day with less soreness and more productivity (Scientific American).

The results of testing steroid use in uncontrolled experiments have shown some jaw dropping effects on athletes. “Weight gains of thirty or forty pounds, coupled with thirty percent increases in strength, are not unusual. Such case studies lack credibility because of the absence of scientific controls. However, it would be foolish to completely disregard such observations because the “subjects” have been highly trained and motivated athletes” (Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science). This shows that even though the experiments were not controlled, the results were astounding and showed that an athlete could gain such a large amount of weight and strength because of steroid use.

In a sport like baseball, upper body strength is a key component to both batters and pitchers. Players, like Rodriguez, need upper body strength to hit baseballs farther and hit more home runs. During the time that Rodriguez took anabolic steroids, he hit more home runs but his batting average did not increase (Scientific American). This was because batting average is normally associated with hand eye coordination and not brute strength. This would still definitely give him an advantage over his opponents.

So specifically for baseball, using PEDs or anabolic steroids will help you to a certain extent with your strength and size but not for your reactions and hand eye coordination. With this being said, it is similar to all other sports. For the sports that strength is needed PEDs would help your athletic performance, however they are banned in almost every sporting event around the world.

Sources:

Scientific American

Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science

Initial Blog Post

Hi, my name is John Luken and I am from Pittsford, New York. I am currently enrolled in DUS, but I hope to get into the Smeal College of Business. I plan on majoring in Accounting. I enjoy playing golf and basketball, and will be attending Penn State Basketball games. I also have season tickets for the football games and I am extremely excited to be a part of something so special, so here is a picture!

Penn State Football

I used to like science in high school but over time I lost interest. I am taking this course because it brings up a new perspective of science for me. My advisor recommended this course for me because it would also fulfill my general education requirements. I like science but I do not see myself in a science environment and for that reason I am not majoring in science.