Daily Archives: September 16, 2016

Can we defeat the Superbugs?

Not this kind of superbug.

According to the Center for Disease Control, antibiotic resistance is when bacteria mutate and become less effected by drugs and chemicals us humans use to fight infections. It is a major public health problem. After years of exposure to antibiotics, due to their prominence in everything from hand soap to cow food, antibiotic resistance is on the rise leading the media to call attention to the threat of superbugs.

Now this is all obviously extremely terrifying. Antibiotics are our biggest line of defense against a wide variety of bacterial infections. With a growing number of strains of bacteria slowly becoming resistant to antibiotics, once easily treated diseases can become far more difficult to deal with.

This is what E coli looks like. Lovely.

For example, as recently as this year the Washington Post reports that an antibiotic resistant strain of E coli has entered the United States. A 49 year old woman in Pennsylvania was found to have a strain of E coli that the Department of Defense determined was resistant to colistin- an antibiotic of last resort. Essentially, colistin is one of the most powerful antibiotics we have left and if an infection becomes immune to it, we have nothing left to fight it. This is a problem.

Antibiotics, obviously.

What is the solution? The CDC’s website lays out several guidelines to prevent further antibiotic resistance. Among them, use your antibiotics for the prescribed time instead of quitting as soon as you feel better, ask your healthcare professional if antibiotics are necessary for fighting your infection and providing symptom relief, and never save antibiotics for when you get sick again. Medical professionals are also encouraged to use antibiotics more sparingly, farmers are encouraged to remove them from their feed as it is unnecessary and overkill, and finally the FDA recently decided that some antibacterial agents have to be removed from hand soap. All in all, it is not a disaster yet, but in the next few years it’ll be interesting to see if we can develop other weapons and become less reliant on antibiotics- the fossil fuels of healthcare.

The Loch Ness Monster!?

Here we are again folks, another sighting of the infamous Loch Ness Monster.

According to The Scotsman, warehouse worker and amateur photographer Ian Bremner has taken a photograph of what could be the most clear, convincing picture of the Loch Ness Monster, “Nessie”. A long serpent-like creature, Nessie is believed to have been seen as far back as 1933 and the image below is believed to resemble some of the most clearest,notable images of the creature.


Loch Ness is a large freshwater lake located in the Scottish Highlands extending approximately 23 miles with an average depth of 433 feet.

In addition to Ian’s latest claim of the Loch Ness Monster, there have been five other reported sightings of the monster this year which is the highest reported sightings since 2002. Others refute that this picture realistically shows three seals playing in the water and nothing more.

According to the article, there have been 1081 recorded sightings of the Loch Ness Monster lurking in the water with this picture being the most recent and convincing evidence.




Is Faster-Than-Light Travel Possible?

According to NASA’s official website, faster than light travel is not yet possible. While they credit many theories in science fiction as credible, they cannot yet test their viability. As we discussed in class, even with infinite money, which NASA certainly does not have, and infinite resources, certain experiments are not possible. This holds true for interstellar travel because the advanced level of technology needed to achieve it- and that’s assuming it is possible- simply has not been developed yet. That being said, scientists do no the challenges we face currently, and why it is currently impossible, and why it eventually may become possible.

Concept Art for a potential Faster-Than-Light ship based on a prototype designed by a NASA scientist.

First, back in 1904, a man named Albert Einstein developed the theories of relativity. According to an article from the Guardian, Einstein’s special theory of relativity was based on two postulates. One, the speed of light is a constant variable. Two, the laws of physics apply everywhere and are not merely applicable to Earth. The first can be difficult to wrap your head around.

How can light be constant? What does that mean? In physics class in 10th Grade, my Prof. Mr. Cherry (the guy who read the book I talked about in my first post) explained this concept in a way I could understand, and in a way not dissimilar from that of the Guardian’s article. Imagine you are standing in a field watching a car go by on a dirt road. Relative to you the car is travelling 60 miles an hour, so the car speeds by you, appearing to travel quite quickly. Now imagine the same field, only you are on a train traveling 60 miles an hour, going the same direction as the car. Relative to you, the car is not moving because it is also going 60 mph. Now, some of that might be wrong I’m obviously not a science major. The point is, speed is relative. The Earth is rotating quickly to have 24 hour days, but we don’t notice it. Anyways, when you do the same concept, but replace the car with light. Whether you are travelling 60 miles an hour or standing still, light travels at the same speed.

The speed of light is measurable. A quick Google search tells us that the speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s. Because of Einstein’s special theory of relativity, we know that energy is mass times acceleration squared. In simple terms, this means that in the process of increasing the speed of an object, we also increase its mass. So, when we increase the speed of a spaceship, we also make it heavier. Objects that are heavier, in turn need more thrust to push them forward. This problem multiplies upon itself and is why lightspeed is so difficult, and currently impossible to reach. All credit for this explanation is again thanks to the same Guardian article.

Concept Art for the new Star Trek Discovery TV series.

In conclusion, the main issue is the obscenely large amount of energy needed to achieve lightspeed. Warp Drive, the reason ships in Star Trek can travel faster than light, is in theory a possible means of achieving lightspeed in real life. Several articles, including this one from Tech Times, discuss NASA’s mock-up of a spaceship that can bend space time around it, by using a loophole in the Theory of Relativity, and is thus capable of traveling faster than light. No tests or experiments of any kind have confirmed this theory and so the concept is just that- a concept. NASA is encouraging people with bright minds and bright ideas to pursue their dreams and attempt to answer this question once and for all. So, while we may not know now if faster than light travel is possible, we will know eventually. The true question is, when will we find out?

effects of music on children

Ever since I was little I loved to dance. I danced to anything and everything, I still do. My favorite past time was when my parents would play music and I could dance around the house. I have been exposed to so many different types of music since a very young age. As I have grown up my love for music never wavered, and this really got me thinking: has my subjection to music since the womb affected me as a person?

During my research I discovered just what I thought, music is very beneficial in child development. Music is what brings our world together and I believe children at every age should experience the joy of music. Music is apparent in every aspect of life and there is a definite reason for that. Music has many benefits for people of all ages but specifically children. Bright Horizons states, “Exposing children to music during early development helps them learn the sounds and meanings of words. Dancing to music helps children build motor skills while allowing them to practice self-expression. For children and adults, music helps strengthen memory skills.” Music can bring joy to a child’s life and could possibly help pose as memories for when they are older. When we are younger most of our preschool classes revolve around music and that is due to it’s ability to help as learn and develop. I truly believe that music is our language before we even learn how to speak. Music can even enhance children’s motor skills and coordination. It could even lower stress levels, which even children have too. Studies show that playing music while pregnant can benefit your even before they are born. It may seem ineffective but it really does pay off in the long run. I can attest from personal experience that there is a song I have always randomly loved and I later found out my mom used to always play it when she was pregnant with me, crazy how the brain works huh? Music is all around us and while it majorly serves as a form of entertainment it could alter a human’s lifestyle and the way they live. Children exposed to music could possibly end up more happy and healthy than the rest of us.



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Pokemon Go: The addiction is real

It’s a gorgeous day outside, and you’re riding your bike through the neighborhood. You see an abnormally large number of people out, and you think to yourself, “How nice! Americans are getting outside finally and staying active, enjoying the weather.” However, it’s then that you notice that nearly every single person has their face buried in their phone, nervously pacing around. You also realize they’re all standing in the same general areas, clumped in similar spots. Finally, the eerie realization dawns on you: they’re simply playing the notorious Pokémon Go.

Image result for pokemon goPersonally, I never succumbed to downloading the game, and participating in the craze that surrounds collecting virtual figures that exist in real areas of the world for points. However, I have friends, and I have siblings, and I know the addiction is real. But what is the science behind this addiction? Why, all of a sudden, are video game connoisseurs and everyday kids alike leaving their houses simply to have a higher number of Pokeballs than their friend to brag about?

Image result for pokemonAccording to an article by US News, the game’s popularity stems from it’s addicting, user-friendly interface, new locations value, and more than that, it’s competitive nature. Who wouldn’t want to compare with friends their collections, and continuously compete in a game that’s neverendingly fun? Personally, I wouldn’t, nor will I ever be a fan of this type of game. However, for many, it’s an addiction.

(n.d.). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-07-11/why-pokemon-go-is-such-a-big-deal

You’re five-years-old, the sun is beating down on your skin while you’re sitting outside on the warm summer grass, and your mom hands you a piece of watermelon.

She tells you not to eat the seeds. Being the disobedient little stinker that you are, you swallow one anyway. Your big sister leans over and tells you that a watermelon is going to grow in your stomach, and you instantly begin to cry.

Little blond girl and boy with a piece of watermelon in hands

It’s 15 years down the road since then, did that watermelon ever show up? (Hopefully not.)

Where exactly did this myth come from that if you eat watermelon seeds, your digestive tract suddenly becomes an organic garden?

It’s no surprise that people more commonly opt for a seedless watermelon (who really wants to keep spitting seeds out of their mouth…) However, what a lot of people don’t know, is that watermelon seeds actually carry a lot of nutritional benefits that many people don’t know about.

An article published on Healthline.com talks about five very beneficial perks of swallowing watermelon seeds.

Forget about accidentally swallowing one while you’re eating watermelon, this article actually advises taking them out of the watermelon, roasting them, and then dusting them with olive oil and salt, or cinnamon and sugar. (Yum?)

It’s no surprise that these seeds are very low in calories. This makes them a great alternative to nuts, which have a surprisingly high caloric value.

Not taking your daily vitamins? That’s okay, the seeds are high in magnesium, iron and folate. (If you’re a vegetarian like me, I’m sure you want to take any chance to grab iron that you can.)

Finally, Healthline.com stated that they are comprised of good fatty acids, like monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. (And yes, everyone needs fat in their diet, just make sure it’s the good kind!)

So while I don’t advice going home and eating an entire watermelon, (I tried once, it didn’t workout too well.) I do recommend taking a new perspective on them, and being open to how they can benefit you.


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Cheating Lessons

Most people would like to think that they would never cheat, regardless of the circumstance. We can say with certainty that if the likelihood of being caught cheating is especially high, we definitely would not even attempt. However, when the likelihood of being caught cheating is low, research and past events have found that people would in fact cheat a little bit. According to research by Dan Ariely, only way to defeat the problem of cheating in high education is by changing the structure of the environment in which they are performing, instead of focusing on what group cheats more than another group. The author acknowledges that cheating cannot be eliminated in its entirety, however preventative measures can be taken. If the learning environment itself is modified, then the number of instances of cheating can be reduced. In the “Princess Alice” study, a group of 5 year olds were given a difficult task in to do (using their non dominant hand) alone as well as in front of an adult and an imaginary person named Princess Alice. It was found that the children were more likely to cheat without the presence of an adult or if they did not believe that Princess Alice was real. Ariely’s experiment and the Princess Alice experiment both provided common cheating-inducing experiences.

Psychologist George M. Diekhoff conducted a survey in 1994 comparing cheating habits among students in similar courses in both Japanese and American universities. The American students were, on average, younger than the Japanese. Other survey research finds that older students are less likely to cheat than younger ones. Yet the Japanese students cheated 29% more than the American students. It can be theorized that the difference in rates of cheating is due to the cultural differences between these two countries. In order to encourage more honest work and less cheating, courses need to be modified. For example, in Japan final exams are weighted most heavily, with pop quizzes and other exams rarely given. Therefore, study habits were not regularly practiced. Passing these exams, therefore, is a lot of pressure for these Japanese students. The explanation is as follows: “The fewer opportunities that students have to earn their grade in a course, the more pressure they feel to perform on each exam or assignment. The more pressure they feel on each exam or assignment, the more likely they are to succeed by any means necessary, including cheating.” For most of those teaching in higher education, they have the ability to design their courses as they see fit, unlike those taking the Chinese civil-service exams or other standardized tests, where cheating is found to be prevalent. Providing many assessments, as opposed to just two or three large exams, is more likely to eliminate cheating. The benefit of cheating on one small assessment is low, while the consequence of cheating on any assessment is always high. These frequent assessments will also provide students with practice for when the high-stake exams take place, because this article does not condone eliminating them entirely. The point made here is to not exactly redesign a course to reduce cheating but rather to induce learning.

The first survey of cheating in higher education in the United States was conducted by William J Bowers in 1963. This survey asked if the students had engaged in any of 13 dishonest academic behaviors. 75% of students surveyed admitted to cheating at one point during college. There has been an astounding rate of cheating amongst college students over the past 50 years. The author believes that it’s time for the faculty to take a role in redesigning courses, assessments and daily classroom habits to prevent cheating from occurring. The best defense against a student cheating is a student not needing to cheat, therefore learning. When provided with the tools they need, students need not to cheat. Actually taking more quizzes and exams produces more learning than simply reviewing notes, hi-lighting text, or rereading books. The key to learning in the Karpicke and Roediger study is the repeating testing and not the studying.


Can Prayer At Alcoholics Anonymous Meetings Reduce Cravings?

“Hi, I’m (insert name here) and I’m an alcoholic”. We’ve all heard it plenty of times in movies, TV shows and other mediums. But can going to Alcoholics Anonymous meetings and maintaining prayer actually help victims of alcoholism? According to one recent study, the answer is yes. At the NYU School of Medicine/Langone Medical Center in Manhattan, researchers found that members who recited prayers after viewing images of alcohol had less craving for the drink as compared to them simply reading a newspaper rather than viewing the images.

Even long-time AA members can still be addicted or have trouble staying away from alcohol and drugs, without the danger of a relapse. But at NYU, the researchers wanted to investigate how the brain responds to triggers for alcohol, with tragic/upsetting events and even seeing alcohol on television or out in public possibly cueing relapses for victims. The study reported that every single research participant/subject reported some degree of craving for alcohol while seeing the images, but less after reciting AA prayers following the sight of the images. While many would call this a placebo effect, essentially that the alcoholics can believe what they want to, the researchers wanted to see if there was scientific evidence to show that the prayer can change the way that alcoholics think.

In my opinion, the evidence is inconclusive. Dr. Galanter, one of the heads of the experiment has been investigating how AA has worked for people over the course of time. His research, while promising, doesn’t necessarily provide evidence we can’t already just imply about the organization. His argument that the current findings open a new field of inquiry does have some basis to it, but with his current evidence and argument, its hard to find where anyone would disagree with the fact that prayer can help those who believe in it.

Galanter also describes how his study would support the validity of long-term AA experience equaling physiological changes inside the brains of alcoholics. While his experiment is interesting, and study of alcoholism should expand so lives can be saved from this disease, there needs to be new research to the table as to how the numbers for alcoholism can be reduced. Raising the drinking age or changing policies won’t help as people who want alcohol will always be able to find it if they look hard enough. When it comes to prayer from Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, you truly get out what you put in. “It works if you work it”, as they say in the AA chapter on the TV show “House of Cards”. Hopefully research can come out related to alcohol that can truly change people’s behavior, not just make it harder for them to buy alcohol.


What is Laughter and why is it contagious?

Laughing we all do it and we know it is something that is natural to us. but what really is Laughter?



According to Science.howstuffworks Laughter is a form of communication in a way of being social.Laughing is more then just a sound but also the way your muscle moves in your body. When these two parts are combined we are squeezing the air out and not taking enough in making it harder for us to breathe. Now we have all experienced if we see someone laughing everybody else in the room starts laughing as well. Why is this is laughter contagious? Well According to PsyArticles human emotions laughter, smiling, crying and so on this is more do to bonding or for the social environment that you are trying to fit in its a natural response. In the same article they tell you about a research that showed them 3 kinds of movies and then they measured their brain wave. They found that whatever the type of movie it was pleasant, unpleasant and neutral they had the same response. And later on Dr. Sophie Scott says something that catches my attention in the same article when she says “mirroring behaviors” and it makes sense cause this happens as soon as we are born, We “mirror behaviors” we learn how to talk and act from our parents and whoever we interact with and laughter goes along with that too.

I hope this article helps you get an idea of what laughter is and why it is contagious

Is Generation Y a lost cause?


Generation Y has been born into the digital age- cell phones, computers, iPads you name it. But can all this time spent fooling around with technology on a, let’s face it, 24/7 basis effect the development of these millennials’ minds? That’s something Sunyoung Cho, a young ‘Pittsburgher,’ dug a little deeper to find out.

Reading this article (http://http://publicsource.org/investigations/technology-changing-millennial-brain#.V9wLWEs09aA) opened my eyes to this growing problem.

It is a well known scientific fact that the human brain does not fully develop until the age of 25. So what can technology do to that development? Let’s see.

There are several parts of the human brain. You have your lobes (parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal), your gyruses (precentral and post central), your Sylvian fissure, Olfactory bulb, cerebellum, and finally your central sulcus. Each of these areas serves a different function. A study conducted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing found that with technology added to the mix, your entire prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and cerebellum develop differently.

Your prefrontal cortex is what controls how you act and your ability to acquire new knowledge. Your parietal lobe controls your ability to understand language, and your cerebellum is what controls muscle movement. Each of these areas is effected by the constant use of technology. We just don’t know by how much.

Being glued, so to speak, to your devices inhibits people’s natural ability to communicate with others. This loss of real social interaction for Generation Y is what I think will set millennials back. Yes, innovations in technology are what pushes our society forward; however, the lack of face-to-face communication between people is not helping our brains’ development. Talking directly with someone, looking them in the eyes, and not having a device grasped in your hand is the cause of social anxiety for many people in today’s world. Nowadays, some people can’t even walk down the street, stand in line, or even eat by themselves- all simple everyday life tasks- without having a device to cling to for dear life.

God forbid somebody came up to you to say hello…or even WORSE…LOOKED AT YOU. AH! The horror!…

Have you ever heard of IAD? Well, psychologist and professor at St. Bonaventure University Kimberly Young, has diagnosed some of her patients- patients suffering from blood clots just from staring at a screen all day- with Internet Addiction Disorder. She finds this disorder to be just as addictive for people as drugs. Living through your phones and computers is not living in the moment and experiencing life. Technology, while it does come with many advantages, is what’s causing people to become disengaged with reality. Depression and even over eating can be linked to not having enough or any in-person interaction.

Our bodies need personal social interaction to release endorphins and other chemicals in the brain so that we feel happy. At the end of the day, a screen is a screen and it will not give you the feeling another person can by just interacting with them face-to-face. While there are several other factors that contribute to the development of your brain, researchers are currently trying to figure out just how much technology effects us.

Why not wear Makeup

Every woman wants to feel beautiful and for some reason beauty is influenced by media. Women who are categorized as beautiful are normally the ones we frequently see on television, magazines, etc. Other than body structures, what differentiates the ‘average’ woman from women in media? Makeup. For years humans have used items to enhance and emphasize their features. Makeup, to be specific has been used as a beauty enhancer for over 10,000+ years. I know, when I heard 10,000 years ago I thought, stone age. So I know what you ladies are thinking, “cave women knew how to apply eyeliner?” Well, It wasn’t exactly called eyeliner back then but the concept/purpose was still the same.

In ancient Greece women used powered lead (which later became poisonous) to maintain a pale skin tone. While in China both men an women used makeup for social class structure by painting their nails with gum during the ages 3000 BC. Alongside, women in ancient Egypt who wore a substance named kohl to darken their eyes and give it a more almond shape to accentuate eye beauty, in comparison, to the modern day eyeliner. As well, as rouge, which both men and women used on the lips just like modern day lipstick. Before modern day chemist created a healthier way to use makeup. Women such as the greeks passed away for using such harsh chemicals on their skin.

So, now we know why people use makeup. The question is why does makeup work? Why and or how does it intrigue people. Most will say because of the impact society has on makeup but from a scientific perspective, makeup is used to exaggerate our natural youthful  features. Thus, making a woman seem more appealing to the man for ‘mating’. People fail too realize that just like wild animals we to give off a ‘mating call’ throughout appearance. In comparison, to  a male peacock who struts his feathers. Human females wear makeup to impersonate the face of an ovulating woman. When most women are ovulating they tend to give off a “glow” with rosy cheeks and lips because their hormones are raging causing a heavy blood flow throughout the body and appearing a certain undertone of the woman’s face.  Giving reasoning why makeup tones are normally in red tones. An assisting professor at the Gettysburgh College named Dr. Richard Rusell performed a study in which he showed the same face twice with and without makeup to prove women look more feminine when wearing makeup. In result, more appealing to the males eye.


Some guys are probably reading this post and do not agree with women wearing makeup. They prefer the ‘natural’ female. That is a lie. A study has been performed where men met choose the woman he finds most attractive. Not realizing that it is the same women just with and without makeup men have chosen women who wear makeup to be more attractive. Leaving me to believe that men do not dislike makeup because women do not look attractive but because it’s deceiving. So, thanks for the compliment gentlemen but we all know makeup is beneficial.

Not only does makeup help a woman feel beautiful and perceive her mating call it also helps her become successful. Based upon economist Daniel S. Hamermesh’s book, ‘Beauty Pays’, beautiful people are more successful. In the book the author, explains how beauty gives a person confidence. With confidence comes networking, with networking comes clientele and job offers. I noticed that while working at Red Lobster as a waitress I would receive more tips on the days I wore makeup to the days I would not wear makeup.

So, ladies its okay if you wear makeup for the attention of man, blame it on your natural animal instinct. If you wear makeup for self satisfaction, that’s completely fine too. Just make sure you reap the benefits makeup can give you, whether its a successful job or a new man.

Citation links: 


Hamermesh, Daniel S. Beauty Pays: Why Attractive People Are More Successful. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2011. Print. http://press.princeton.edu/titles/9516.html


Attachment to T.V. shows

As I was researching I started to have trouble thinking of topics to write my three blog posts on. I felt I was at a standstill and decided to take a break before I became extremely discouraged. Whenever I am sad I know one thing that can instantly cheer me up: my favorite T.V. show. It is kind of peculiar that a fictional T.V. show with made up characters and plots can instantly change my mood and keep me captivated time and time again. Some shows have the ability to make you feel like you are there and the characters are your friends, which happens to me on a daily basis. So then I got thinking what is it that makes us so attached to these fictional characters and plot lines? I then knew what I wanted to do a post on: the science behind our attachment to T.V. shows.

In a world full of Netflix binge watching it is easy to bond with people over their favorite shows and episodes. It is also easy to become slightly obsessed. This however is not uncommon it is actually very normal due to the “social surrogacy hypothesis.” Events on T.V. shows allow a part of our brain to access memories and emotions. If you are struggling during a sad time it is easy to find comfort in the characters who are also feeling blue. Fictional characters can affect people in very real ways even changing them drastically. Live Science did a study on this exact subject and I found some really interesting findings. They stated that, “Subjects in one study who felt down from remembering unhappy moments of social rejection soon perked up upon writing about their favorite TV shows and characters.” Spending time with fictional characters could even pose as a break from spending time with actual people. When our favorite characters dies, we feel it, when our favorite couple breaks up it feels we are experiencing heart break too. “In a study published in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Jonathan Cohen, of the Department of Communication at the University of Haifa in Israel, examined the responses of television viewers to the potential loss of their favorite television characters. Cohen found that viewers anticipated experiencing the same negative reactions to parasocial breakups as they experience when their real social relationships dissolve. Even though parasocial relationships may offer a quick and easy fix for unmet belonging needs, individuals within these relationships may not be spared the pain and anguish of relationship dissolution.” T.V. shows and the feelings they cause can have major psychological effects.

The next time you find yourself crying when a character is killed off or smiling when a character has a major triumph know that what your feeling is normal and you are not alone.


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Can I Use Turkey As Nyquil?

I don’t know how your family goes about Thanksgiving, but mine goes above and beyond. The day consists of hours upon hours spent cooking dozens of dishes, setting long decorative tables, and giving many thanks. There is no doubt that at the end of the night, we are all ready for a long night’s sleep. I personally always thought we were just so tired from all of the effort we put into the holiday with all the traveling and preparation, but my Granddad insists otherwise. For years he has been telling me that the thanksgiving turkey is what makes us sleepy. I’m like, “….yeah. We just cooked it for 8 hours..duh”, but that is not what he means. He claims that it is an ingredient in the turkey that makes the brain groggy.

I decided to write this blog about this topic so I can do a little bit of research to confirm or deny this because for years I have just trusted his elder knowledge. This secret ingredient that my old pop speaks of is L-Tryptophan. You cannot find this amino acid naturally in the body, it can only be ingested with certain foods that have it, and yes, turkey does contain it. This holiday bird is no Nyquil!!! In fact, it’s much more complicated than it seems. According to Lisa Zamosky, L-Tryptophan sparks a chain reaction of chemical reactions in the body. The amino acid allows the body to create the chemical Serotonin in the brain which then is used to create the hormone Melatonin which initiates sleep and awakening. As Zamosky states, Turkey is just one of many poultries that contains L-Tryptophan, and it isn’t even the leading bird with the most of it. Chicken and fish are actually two foods with the highest amount of the amino acid.

So, due to this explanation, are us turkey eaters allowed to sit here and tell the “non-thanksgiving-turkey-eaters” that they’re not tired because they didn’t eat any turkey? Of course not. Like we talked about in class, just because something is evidence toward a conclusion, it doesn’t mean that there can’t be other causations toward the dependent variable. So yes, working hard cooking, alcohol, organizing, traveling, talking, preparing, or just overeating in general could all be plausible causations of a sleepy Thanksgiving celebrator!



Picky eating 101: The psychology of trying new foods

I grew up in a family of six, with three younger siblings. One of the most stressful, and yet memorable parts of my childhood is family meals. Absolutely none of us liked the same types of food. Of course, there were a few things I didn’t particularly enjoy the taste of at a young age, most of which I still dislike, save a few tastes I now crave on a daily basis. I still can’t stand salad, cold lunch meat, peppers, or cantaloupe… however, I have gone through the natural progression of begrudgingly learning to love vegetables, a few types of sauces and spices, and even certain obscure cultural foods of other areas of the world. However, absolutely nothing I experienced compared to that of my younger brother. My brother Jack is just two years younger than I am, and his childhood was completely transformed by his extreme picky eating. From the age of three to about 14, he essentially lived off of chicken nuggets, peanut butter, apples, cereal, and sweets. We tried everything in the book, with nothing prevailing. Image result for food aversionI even vividly remember trying to sneak a pear slice into his plate of apple slices, just so that he would try it, and he immediately noticed before it even touched his tongue and I was honestly so frustrated. How could a growing boy evolve into a man without having a slice of pizza, or a hamburger? He managed to do it.

It wasn’t just that he disliked a lot of different foods because he either refused to try them, or hated the taste. It was that he truly did not like the act of eating. He felt as though it was a chore, and we had to do all but force him to sit still at the table and put down a full meal, even if it was the exact same thing he’s eaten every night. Unsurprisingly, he went through his childhood the size of a twig. However, in the past three years, he has gone through an amazing transformation. Today, he will eat close to ten times the types of foods he was willing to try before, and in bulk. He looks forward to meals, and gets all of his vitamins in that he needs. He’s probably grown close to a foot just having finally expanded his food horizons. He even is willing to try new things; he constantly asks to order something different at a restaurant, or take a bite of someone else’s meal. Having firsthand witnessed this experience, I’ve often wondered, what makes a person evolve to love the food that they would refuse to even be in the same room with as a child?

Through some research, it essentially comes down to science, shown through a handful of factors. The first major player in our food preferences is innate, and it all starts with genetics. According to an article by author Joseph Bennington-Castro on the psychology of food tastes, as humans, we all are predisposed to Image result for meme picky eaterenjoy a few particular tastes for evolutionary reasons. Fatty food attracts us for its high calorie count, providing us with the energy to get through the day. Sweet food often attracts us for its energy as well, along with nutrients and vitamins. On the other hand, tastes that are bitter are historically prevalent in toxic plants, so we are genetically predisposed to despise them (Bennington-Castro). However, genetics don’t play an overbearing role in our psychological predisposition to enjoy and dislike particular foods.

In fact, the majority of our preferences are actually learned, sometimes before an infant is actually born. Apparently, within the womb, infants are often influenced by the mother’s daily eating habits, so that whatever tastes they are often predisposed to, they have been shown to have greater positive reactions to after birth. In one study, as detailed by Bennington-Castro, mothers regularly drank carrot juice late in the stages of their pregnancy. After birth, psychologists found that these babies tended to enjoy carrot-flavored milk and cereal more than their non-carrot-drinking counterparts (Bennington-Castro). Following birth, an infant will essentially eat anything for a period of around two years (Bennington-Castro). Directly following this, children often develop neophobia, developing a dislike for any new food.

Often, parents take this period of time and give up altogether on trying to force their children to eat the food they will throw a tantrum at the sight of (Bennington-Castro). However, this is often the solution to avoiding a picky eater. Children must habitually eat the things that they may dislike, because later, this neophobia will subside, and they will learn to love it. Additionally, I believe that sometimes, cultural influences affect your willingness to try food. I genuinely think that my brother eventually got so sick of having to be the one who needed a special order at a restaurant or who couldn’t eat the slice of pizza at the pool party that he forced himself to try and like those things that he was afraid of. It simply takes time, people will learn to adapt after passing this initial neophobic age,  and realize their true tastes. Expanded horizons are a positive thing, and most will develop an ever-expanding palate as they age. If you want to check out a video that teaches you to overcome a taste aversion, you can find it here.
Bennington-Castro, J. (2013, April 22). The psychology of hating food (and how we learn to love it). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://io9.gizmodo.com/the-psychology-of-hating-food-and-how-we-learn-to-love-476720251

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Cancer in the Turf?

While trying to think of a blog post I thought of an interesting story I heard on ESPN about the turf beads on turf soccer fields correlation to cancer. Not many people know but the turf beads on turf fields comes from used rubber tires that are then broken down into little rubber crumbs. The use of the rubber crumbs on synthetic turf fields was a solution to the build up of used tires with no where to put them.

The institution of turf has been great for the sporting world. Personally, as someone who played football on both a grass field and a turf field, a turf field has every advantage. Turf fields are softer, flatter, and dry fifa-turf-sexist-kat-mcgrail1more quickly then almost any grass field. However, recently, a disadvantage may have been discovered.

Amy Griffin is the goalkeeping coach for the University of Washington’s women’s soccer team. More importantly, she seems to have picked up on a scary correlation. Griffin noticed a significant number of athletes who had once constantly practiced and played on synthetic turf fields were diagnosed with some form of cancer in their later lives. The even more shocking discovery was that many of these players were goalies. Since this discovery Amy Griffin has sought out to find more cases of athletes who once played on synthetic turf and have been diagnosed with any type of cancer. The results were consistent with her hypothesis. She made a list of 200 of athletes who fit the mold she was looking for. Of those 200 athletes with cancer, 101 were soccer goalies. Used tires are toxic if burned and thats why they can not be put in landfills, but now there is fear breathing in or exposure to the toxicity maybe be causing cancer, primarily lymphoma. It is suspected that the crumb rubber getting on open cuts, in the eye, in the mouth, and other exposed areas may lead to health concerns. Although many toxologists suggest there is not enough evidence for concern that the fields are causing cancer, the statistics definitely call for attention to this subject.  here


Throughout my life I have always just assumed any type of food that was modified from being completely organic is not good for me. However, one day while sitting in lunch last year an argument erupted between Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). On one side of the argument my friend was saying he refuses to eat any GMOs because they are bad for him and on the other side was the valedictorian of my high school saying not all GMOs are bad, in fact, some GMOs are better for you then organic food. It was hard to believe the valedictorian based on the tiny amount knowledge I had on the subject, but I was curious to find out if he was right.


It is generally assumed that because an organism is genetically modified it has been tampered with to either look better, taste better, or both. In that assumption there is no way GMOs can be healthier than regular food, right? Wrong. As it turns out there can actually be a lot of nutritional benefits to genetically modifying a product. Many scientists are actually trying to improve the eating conditions through genetically modified organisms. With the sophisticated work scientists have been doing with GMOs they will be able to modify food that can help ward off illness and disease. For example, scientists have genetically modified rice to contain more Vitamin A which could save people in third world countries from becoming blind. However, this genetically modified rice is not unable to reach any third world country and its not due to lack of resources. It is because of people like  my friend who refuses to eat genetically modified organisms and think it is unethical to release food that is not organic into the world. As someone who is now slightly educated on the topic I can not understand that people would oppose something with so much positive scientific evidence backing it. It is almost like what we discussed with the realization that cigarettes are unhealthy. People need to see the results in order to change their opinions. I think over time the majority of people will come to realize the benefit GMOs can have on society, but for now the highly debated argument continues.


Life After Concussions

As someone who has never had a concussion, my knowledge and experience is limited. My ignorance has made me curious to find out more about the topic of concussions, specifically the long term effects. I’ve seen the Sports Center stories on NFL players who deal with horrible things after many concussions and I wanted to find out what caused the long term trauma.

The common long term result of severe concussions is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy or CTE. CTE is a disease that cause brain tissue to begin to slowly break down. Clearly that can have serious effects. There are many effects such as memory loss and depression, but the ultimate and most hindering result of CTE is Dementia. The NFL is where CTE is the most relevant. A study was done by scientists in which they examined 91 brains of former NFL players who had passed away for CTE. The results were shocking. Of the players examined 87 of them were diagnosed with CTE.

One of the scariest parchronic_traumatic_encephalopathyts of this disease is the symptoms effects on the victims mindset. Several former players in the NFL who were once normal, functioning human beings took their own lives due to the depression and impulsiveness that CTE causes. The majority of players who end up being diagnosed with CTE are offensive lineman, defensive lineman, linebackers, and running backs because they consistently knock heads play after play.

The question is now what can we do to prevent CTE. Every level of football, from elementary school to professional, has made steps to make the game safer. In practice hitting is limited and in some instances, like the Ivy League, tackling in practice has been completely eliminated. The most important advance in head protection has been the helmet. Every year a new and more sophisticated helmet is engineered to help ease future head trauma. Of course it is impossible to completely stop head injuries in football, it is just a part of the game, but with the new information on CTE this will expedite the process on making football more safe.

What’re you putting in my Ramen?

I’ve already seen a few blog posts about Ramen Noodles, but I feel the need to express my own thoughts and the problem I see. My last blog post discussed the sugar problem we have in the United States and how basically everything we consume has way too much added sugar than needed, which is bad because it leads to serious health problems.

Now, my main focus is salt. This site explains why his levels of salt can actually be good for you because of correlations between high-salt diets and some healthy outcomes of it. However, it is important to be aware that the type of salt matters (unrefined is the healthiest).

Anything that you consume that is processed in any way should scream “unhealthily” to you! The sugar and especially salt levels are high in order to preserve the food, and that is completely the case with ramen noodles. As I mentioned earlier, everything in moderation is okay, but you have to be sure you’re eating the RIGHT type of salt. Justifying a pack of Ramen noodles a day just because that is getting sodium into you diet is not the right way to approach the situation.

One of the most harmful ingredients in Ramen noodles is actually found in many common foods such as Reese peanut butter cups and Wheat thins. This article explains what TBHQ does to your digestion and what it looks like. It is actually a preservative, and as I mentioned before, so is salt. This just goes to show how the wrong type of salt can be extremely harmful you internally. Studies have even shown that there are correlations between this nasty ingredient, TBHQ, and cancerous tumors.

In conclusion, RAMEN NOODLES ARE NOT THE WAY TO GO! And honestly, if you think about all of this information as you eat them… they don’t even seem that appealing anymore. There are many other ways to make cheap, yet healthy food in your dorm room! Do your research and make your health a priority.


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Everything in moderation, people!


Dangers of the tanning salon

Summer has come to an end and so has our days of basking in the sun. With our hectic schedules we can no longer find time to catch some rays or even worry about our appearance. Due to this lack of time some girls find it imperative to keep their tan with the help of a tanning bed. However what some people do not understand is the severity of the dangers these beds impose, or they shut a blind eye in order to keep up this risky habit. Just like it is important to wear sunscreen it is important to protect our skin from the dangers of these ultraviolet rays. The American Academy of Dermatology states that “Thirty-five percent of American adults, 59 percent of college students, and 17 percent of teens have reported using a tanning bed in their lifetime.” That is an extremely large percentage making us wonder just how many people at Penn State use a tanning bed daily. The equipment used in a tanning bed are what pose the most dangers. The ultraviolet rays can be potentially life threatening. The Academy then later states that “Using indoor tanning beds before age 35 can increase your risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, by 59 percent; the risk increases with each use. And that women younger than 30 are six times more likely to develop melanoma if they tan indoors.”  Melanoma is a skin disease that usually first results in moles but has severe consequences. The UV rays damaging your skin is what leads to this disease and has other effects such as: eye damage, burns, loss of consciousness, early skin aging among others. I used to go tanning but as I have done more research I now realize the harm I am putting my body through. It is crazy to think that light bulbs can cause so much damage to the body and the mind. Which just further proves how surprising science is all around us. When you feel the urge to hit the tanning bed think about the life changing altercations it may pose. There are other methods to suppress your needs that are both healthy and effective, such as self tanner and spray tans. Tanning beds are threatening the lives of those around us and we need to take a stand before it effects one more person especially at Happy Valley.


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What are Near-Death Experiences?

I had a hard time coming up with my third topic for my third blog. Everyone’s topics were so intriguing and I found myself sitting, waiting for something to come to me. As I sat in the chair of my desk, I pondered to myself and finally remembered a topic I have always been eager to know more about– that topic being near-death experiences. Personally, I have always been a religious person. And although I do not strictly follow anything the bible or the church states, I do consider myself to be Christian. I have never doubted the magic and reality of science and I never rule out science when hearing about any specific situation. I did, however, become amazed with the idea and reality of a near-death experience after viewing a video on a Hindu man who claimed he “met Jesus” after he apparently died and then came back to life.

I could not wrap my mind around the fact that this man was not even Christian– he was Hindu and he was confirming the fact that he had, in fact, died, met Jesus, and then come back to life again. Although I mentioned the fact that I have always considered myself to be a religious person, I have never really fully believed until I watched these videos on near-death experiences. Of course, still, there is no actual proof on the fact. But, a video of a Hindu man claiming to meet Jesus truly fascinated me, and I could not help but believe the man. According to The Atlantic, most of the near-death experiences that have been reported have been astonishingly similar. Most people have reported the feeling of “floating up” and meeting things such as spirits or angels. The article mentions the fact that as many times as science has tried to explain the near-death experiences, there is no one, true, verified explanation. Science has attempted to describe near-death experiences as an oxygen shortage, imperfect anesthesia, and the body’s neurochemical responses to trauma. The article mentions, however, that “Near- Death Experiencers” (otherwise known as NDEs) automatically put down the explanations that science has attempted to give to the phenomenal, indescribable experiences.

This short video: click here gives a perfect example of one woman’s near-death experience. She was unconscious after apparently drowning (for twelve minutes) and her husband mentioned the fact that she did not have a heartbeat. She described her experience and mentioned the fact that she could “feel her spirit peeling away from her body.”

After reading up on near-death experiences and watching numerous videos on the topic, I still find myself to have the same outlook on the phenomenon. I almost find myself feeling stronger and more confident on the fact that they are real because I could not find much scientific evidence. Although I do not completely rule out the fact that science could possibly be the magic behind these experiences, I do find myself to be biased, and believe the thousands of people who have reported their experiences with confidence. Here is another video (this one is much longer) that tells the story of two people who encountered what the world as come to know as “near-death experiences.”


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Are drugs such as Ritalin safe?

In highschool I was prescribed a medication named Vyvanse to help me focus in class. Originally, my doctor wanted to give me Ritalin or Adderall, but my mother said that those had bad effects on my when I had tried them earlier in life. I am one of the people who is prescribed these types of medication,but in this survey done by Nature Weekly Journal of Science, 1 in 5 people they asked admitted to using these types of drugs without being prescribed them in an attempt to make them smarter and focus better. This did not shock me because in my high school, taking Adderall and Ritalin was a big phenomenon. People who were prescribed were selling it to anyone, both for school and not school purposes. I remember that because people were not prescribed the medication themselves, they did not know what dose to take and were frequently overmedicating themselves. If the drug is already not supposed to be given to people not having ADHD or another condition, overmedicating is definitely not a good idea.

According to Science Alert, while medications such as Vyvanse and Adderall can be helpful for someone like me who has ADHD, they might be making children do worse than they would be usually. People who have low levels on concentration are the optimal users of this drug, the type of people who are wasting their time are the people who have high concentration levels because their brains are already almost using their brain’s full potential, so using drugs such as Vyvanse could actually weaken concentration and short term memory (Science Alert).

Interestingly enough, in a new study people who were given a placebo drug which they thought was Ritalin concentrated more on schoolwork and in class.

These drugs can also be harmful because of what it does to the body. When I take my Vyvanse I don’t want to talk to anyone, I don’t eat during the day, and if I am not doing work I feel wasted as a person. But once the medicine wears off, I always feel exhausted and drained. To some, the reaction is feeling wide awake so when it wears off and they are tired, they are tempted to take another pill. According to Business Insider, this can lead to a cycle of becoming addicted to taking these drugs, and it is especially harmful for people who are not supposed to be taking them every day.

Even some people who are supposed to be taking the medication can have bad reactions to it. Among the people listed  as having health problems because of this medication, a young boy was given a low dose of the drug and had hallucinations and reoccurring nightmares. He needed the prescription because of ADHD but his body did not handle the medication in the correct way.

Hopefully, if you are prescribed Adderall, Vyvanse, Ritalin, or something similar this blog post has offered you a new insight of things that can happen.

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I was scrolling through The Atlantic online today and found an article about small talk. Small talk. The thing that my mother could have a job in and my dad creeps out strangers with. His idea of small-talk is seeing someone at a resort about to cook a steak and saying “Oo what’s for dinner?” The person then awkwardly smiles and runs away. My mom, on the other hand, will tell a cashier her life story. I’m convinced every cashier at our local Wegmans knows way too much about me thanks to her.
In the article, the author noted something that stuck out to me, and it was that small talk helps us to feel connected to our surroundings. I never thought of it like that. I know already that substantive conversation with others helps us feel connected to people, and I believe personally, and many psychologists I’m sure could back me up that connection to our fellow human beings is one of the most important parts of life. I, myself, am a mixture of my parents. There are some days where I want to sit in lecture and not have a person breathe on me, and other days where I want to tell everyone at Trader Joes that I love them. The article itself is actually very short, but encouraged me to poke around the internet to see what else had to be said on this topic on talking and happiness.
I found myself on the National Library of Medicine and National Institute of Health’s website. The html ended with a “.gov” so I knew I was in good hands.Firstly, I’d like to note that both articles used the same example after mentioning small talk that made it seem like small talk was merely noticing a person had popcorn and then saying it was yummy. This to me, is odd because never have a heard someone other than maybe a grandma say such things. But that’s besides the point. It went on to talk about a study where undergraduate students had to wear an EAR (Electronically Activated Recorder) for four days that tracked bits of their conversations every so often. It used some weird math to come up with frequencies that essentially showed that people who talk to more people are happier, and that people who have more substantive conversations were even happier.

I definitely say that there is more that could be done with this, especially at a college level. I saw an article earlier this week on Onward State with a headline telling that State College Police had prevented two suicide attempts. As much as I was shocked, I was not surprised. Small talk might seem minor, but I wonder if science could prove it’s importance. I’m by no means saying that it is a solution to depression and suicide in college students, but I think there’s more to be seen.

As per usual in life, it’s importance to have a balance of small talk and substantive talk. With small talk you may not find out a person’s greatest fear, but you could make them smile, and then might even make you smile back, and what’s better than that?



If there is one thing this course has taught me in the mere four weeks we’ve been in session, it is to question EVERYTHING. It’s strange because I used to believe that the only thing real in this world was science.
During the summer, John Oliver did a segment on his show Last Week Tonight about scientific studies where he addressed their all-too-common faultiness. I wasn’t that shocked to hear that Kathy Lee and Hoda saying that drinking wine is better than going to the gym was false, but I was shocked by the lack of accuracy necessary to publish results for a study. This is obviously dangerous because human beings are typically insanely gullible. If you tell them something, and then attach “study” to it, a large percentage will believe it.

Then I come across a story on The New Yorker’s website about the mistrust in the science field. It is a commencement address at the California Institute of Technology in June given by Atul Gawande.
The first part of the speech reminded me of a lecture in Andrew’s class. He discussed what it means to be a scientist, even claiming that we can all be scientists if we adjust the way that we think.
He also touched on how science is a community that has no room for egos. Egos prevent interaction in a field that needs community for any legitimate advance to take place. Gawande notes the influence of education in challenging the trust of science. Education can introduce people to science but it can then also mislead those people into thinking that they have a position to say what it right and what is not right. My brain is getting very confused and I think maybe now I might be doing what this very article says is the problem.

This speech outlines even more so to me the caution we must take when approaching everything. “You can believe everything you hear” now pertains to a lot more areas that I thought it did. I know read The New Yorker, what I consider to be a reputable news source, and I now wonder. But perhaps that’s the point, though. To question everything, while also you may never have the answer to anything.



Over the past decade, we have seen a shift in farming, grossly due to advancements in technology. Factory farming is something that many at least have a general idea of thanks to teachers wanting to show Food Inc. in health class. Any person who has gone to the grocery store in their life knows the overwhelming new varieties of “organic” or “free-range” options with a special Non-GMO certified label.

Organic has definitely become trendy but many believe, including myself, that it is for good reason that it is trendy. It wasn’t until September 15th in my SC200 lecture that I felt I had any reason to think otherwise. Andrew stated that there is no evidence to prove that genetically modified organisms are bad, and challenged anyone in the class who found valid evidence to prove him wrong. I sat there and thought, “Okay. How hard can this be? I’ll google are GMOs actually bad for you?” I hoped maybe some reputable science journal would pop up in one of the top searches claiming that they are in fact bad for you. But I didn’t find this. I did find an article stating that Bill Nye apparently doesn’t think GMOs are dangerous for our health, and if Bill Nye says something, I’m inclined to believe him slightly.
I did find an article however on Slate, that goes in depth discussion of how the anti-GMO crusade is largely full of fear mongering tactics and fraud. It talks about how a quarter of a billion children are suffering from vitamin deficiency, a problem that GMOs help to aid.

Nutrition is a field that I feel is constantly changing or at least media outlets will promote this idea for money, but I don’t believe everything with an “organic” label is healthy. I think the healthiest good is food that is grown locally without genetic modification, but it’s expensive.
I eat a lovely Trader Joe’s diet off my parent’s dime, but most of the population cannot shop at the prices that local, organic and free-range usually call for. The biggest argument for GMOs is the sustainability that comes along with it. Genetically modified food, factory farming feeds significantly more people than organic does. Chipotle is a fast growing chain but McDonalds still feeds the most people.

I’ve realized now that I never did enough research into GMOs, at least not on both sides. I took an idea and believed it, which is dangerous, because I have then contributed to spreading false ideas. I never thought GMOs could be anything other than bad, and now I’m realizing that they might in fact be really good.



Bed or Breakfast??

I had this problem throughout high school and now it followed me into college. I do not wake up in time to eat breakfast at all or I am just simply not hungry. I have noticed that after this habit was happening, I shortly became used to it. I would wake up before school and not be hungry at all. My parents tell me it’s bad and its the “Most important meal of the day!” but i question if it actually is.

In this article, it claims that there are numerous studies on children who eat breakfast appear to be thinner and that hunger affects “1 in 7 households” in America.  In another article I read it claimed that children who did not eat a good enough breakfast would end up with “metabolic syndrome 27 years later,” (2014).

Either eating breakfast could be a benefit and balance out one’s hunger throughout the day or it can make someone crave more food. In this article, it states that “18% of males and 13% of females skip breakfast between the ages of 35 and 54,” (2011).

We live in a society when rushing is part of everyday life. Whether it is rushing to class, a job, an appointment, etc. Numerous people tend to skip breakfast or eat a “mini breakfast” like a granola bar or just drink a coffee to wake up. There were numerous claims that it is understandable if one cannot eat right when he or she wakes up because according to this article , “Many of us are not hungry until a couple hours after awakening.”

However, there are also claims that different breakfasts change one’s hunger later in the day. For example, that previous article also claimed that if one eats “highly processed carbohydrates,” they will crave more food later on.

Remember when we took the SAT or the ACT and they gave little advice saying “you can drink coffee” or “should eat something before testing.” According to the American Dietetic Association, teens who eat breakfast will have improved concentration as well as better test grades.

Yes, indeed eating something in the morning will start your day off but I surely believe that one can continue his or her day without eating breakfast at all or a “mini breakfast.” Maybe breakfast does help someone throughout the day and maybe it really doesn’t. We will surely find out in the future if it really does make a big impact!


Carroll, Aaron E. “Sorry, There’s Nothing Magical About Breakfast.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 May 2016. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/24/upshot/sorry-theres-nothing-magical-about-breakfast.html?_r=0>.

Http://www.Facebook.com/DrRonaldHoffman. “Do You Really Need To Eat Breakfast?” Mindbodygreen. N.p., 05 Feb. 2014. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-12515/do-you-really-need-to-eat-breakfast.html>.

“4 Reasons Why You Should Never Skip Breakfast.” LiveScience. TechMedia Network, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.livescience.com/39598-reasons-never-skip-breakfast.html>.

“Breakfast Backtrack: Maybe Skipping The Morning Meal Isn’t So Bad.” NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/05/13/477794736/breakfast-blowback-maybe-skipping-the-morning-meal-isnt-so-bad>.
“5 Reasons Your Teen Needs Breakfast.” Www.eatright.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016. <http://www.eatright.org/resource/food/nutrition/healthy-eating/5-reasons-your-teen-needs-breakfast>.