For years, astronauts who had spent long durations of time in outer space had been coming back down to Earth with vision problems, but nobody could figure out why. Mike Wall, a senior writer for space.com, stated that the vision problems experienced by astronauts after a prolonged amount of time in outer space would hinder expeditions to farther reaches of outer space, such as Mars. In a later article on the subject by Ed Susman, which he had written for MedPageToday, stated that nearly two-thirds of long term International Space Station missions resulted in vision problems for the astronauts on them, and that by 2010, people were very concerned. There is a very clear correlation between the amount of time spent in space and the likelihood of developing vision problems.
Dr. Noam Alperin and his team of doctors had decided to try and find out if fluid pressure was the cause for vision problems that the astronauts were experiencing; to do so, they compared MRI scans from seven long duration scans and 9 short duration scans, where, in this scenario, the short duration is the control. Dr. Noam Alperin found that the changes viewed were significant enough in long duration to reject the null hypothesis, that being that it didn’t do anything to fluids, while accepting the alternative hypothesis that fluid was the mechanism.
One clear possible problem with this study is that confounding variables are unlikely, but having a small sample size means that it is possibly due to chance.