Author Archives: Anna Strahle

Stressed? Read A Book!

Ever since I was a child I have loved getting wrapped up in a book and reading it for hours at a time. It didn’t have to be any specific kind of book, just as long as the story intrigued me and kept me occupied. Now that I am in college I find very little time to sit down and read a book unless it’s a textbook. I used to have all the time in the world to relax and read a book, but now that I need to relax, I can almost never find the time to do so. It’s all very frustrating.


When I do find the times to lay back and do nothing, I found out that I am not relaxing in the most effective way. There was a randomized control trial completed at the University of Sussex in 2009. By manipulating the subjects stress levels (tested by their muscle tension and heart rate), the scientists measured which tactic worked best to ease the individual into a relaxed state. The several relief methods evaluated were listening to music, drinking tea, playing video games, taking a walk, and reading. All methods had the ability to relieve some strain, but reading turned out to be the most efficient because it was both fast and effective.

All of the people in the sample used for the study had to go through a series of activities in order to increase their levels of muscle tension and heart rate. Not only did reading reduce stress levels after completing the exercises, but it reduced the individuals’ stress past what they started at prior to completing the exercises. Within six minutes of reading, both muscle tension and heart rate were decreased dramatically. Compared to the other techniques, reading dropped levels by 68%, listening to music was 61%, drinking tea was 54%, taking a walk was 42%, and playing video games was 21%. All of these methods are negatively correlated with stress levels, but the scientists cannot definitively prove that reading more will cause you to feel less stress. Additionally, it is hard to compare physical health directly with mental health, but that is all that the scientists are capable of measuring with today’s technology.


The scientists believe that the mechanism for reading’s strength in lessening anxiety is due to distraction. In my experience, reading has been able to do just that; divert my attention from what has been holding me down. I remember one instance during my senior year of high school when I was supposed to be hearing back from Penn State, and I couldn’t sleep or focus on anything except the fact that I might not get into my top school. My mom finally became fed up with my attitude and demanded I go occupy myself somehow. I explained to her that nothing could keep me engaged, and finally she suggested I re-read one of my favorite books. I took her advice, and miraculously I was hooked. In the science world, anecdotes are not something to use as evidence for a discovery because it could easily be a fluke. However, with the data from the randomized control trial and my personal experience, I highly recommend this method to take some of the weight off of your very tired shoulders.

College can be extremely difficult for all types of majors, and it’s smart to take some time for yourself to relax. Reading a book is a fun and effective way to do it. If you’re interested here is a link to the best reads of 2016. Or if you’re like me, you can just read Harry Potter for the 5th time in a row.

Source: Chiles, Andy. “Reading Can Help Reduce Stress, According to University of Sussex Research.” The Argus. IPSO, 2009. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

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To Eat or Not to Eat

As the days grow closer to Thanksgiving, the arguments in my family grow larger about what sides we should cook for dinner. There are the obvious favorites such as stuffing, mashed potatoes, and the green beans, but every year we always like to throw in a new and original dish to try something new. My parents and my sister are not picky eaters in the slightest. I am not either, but I am definitely pickier than them. I am curious as to why some people like some foods, whereas others do not.


An article from the Smithsonian explains that it is the number of bumps, also known as fungiform papillae, that determine how sensitive your taste buds really are. There is a test that you can use on yourself in order to count them: cover your tongue with blue food coloring. The blue food coloring makes it easier to see these scattered bumps. Now, if there are more than 30 of the fungiform papillae in a circle about a quarter inch wide, you have very delicate and specific taste requirements. This condition is also known as being a “supertaster”. Though it might sound awesome to be referred to as “super”, this superpower might not be as great as it sounds. Unfortunately, it means you have less of a selection of food you will eat. Both bitter and spicy tasting foods will not be acceptable for your palate.


It was in the early 1990s when a student at Yale University, Linda Bartoshuk, was studying the artificial sweetener saccharin that supertasters were uncovered. While many people labeled the saccharin as sweet, there was a small handful that claimed it had a bitter aftertaste. Bartoshuk became curious as to why these people had such acute taste buds, and so she decided to put together a large randomized control trial to test the subject further. The independent variable were various food chemicals, and the dependent variable was the individual’s sensitivity to the chemical. With this sample information she concluded that about 25% of Americans are supertasters.

She then chose to pay attention to the various physical layouts of tongues that individuals have. The people that were categorized as supertasters had tongues with many of the fungiform papillae scattered across all areas. In addition to needing a high frequency of fungiform papillae on your tongue, you also need to be able to taste PROP in order to be classified as a supertaster. PROP is a bitter tasting compound, however only people with high sensitivity will actually be able to recognize the bitterness.

So like I said before, by having the abilities of a supertaster, yes you will not be able to eat as much as me, but it turns out you might have some health perks. As other scientists completed meta analyses on Bartoshuk’s work, they came to notice that supertasters tend to avoid rich flavors in their food selection. Most of these rich flavors that are not included in their diet are primarily foods with fats and sugars. With this observation they also realized that supertasters are usually skinnier than people with a more open food selection. Since high intakes of fats and sugars are most commonly known for positively correlating with a high cholesterol, they are known to be much healthier on that spectrum. In contrast, many vegetables are too bitter for their taste buds to handle, so they miss out on many nutrients from that food group.

Overall, there are pros and cons to being both a non-taster (food selection is unlimited) and a supertaster. Unfortunately, unlike becoming a vegan or a vegetarian, this trait is genetic, so you are stuck with the condition you are born with whether you like it or not. Regardless of your food choices, I hope you have a delicious Thanksgiving:)!


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Source: Beckam, Mary. “A Matter of Taste.” Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian, Aug. 2004. Web. 23 Nov. 2016.

Do Butterflies Remember Being Caterpillars?

I have always thought it was interesting how caterpillars have the ability to pretty much change into a completely different animal during their life. To be honest it doesn’t really make much sense to me because for half of their life they are able to move about a foot every twenty minutes, and then the other half they have wings and can fly. But my big question is if they remember the time before they could fly.

According to Nancy Miorelli, an entomologist, caterpillars don’t know that they are eventually going to turn into butterflies. She compares it to humans going through puberty; we have no control over the hair that grows on our body during that time. Just like us, hormones signal the body to start growing, but it’s not until the juvenile hormone is no longer present that they transform into the cocoon (1).


Scientists’ previous understanding of what occurred inside of cocoons was that the caterpillar turns to complete mush before it reforms into a butterfly. But just like we have heard in class many times, scientists can be wrong. It is true that most of the insect dissolves, however most of the vital organs stay pretty much intact with some minor alterations in order to be more effective in the new body. For example, the tracheal tubes grow larger because the butterfly is going to need a greater amount of oxygen because it is exerting more energy flying.

The brain is a different situation. The brains of insects contain many different segments. One particular segment is in charge of smelling, taste, learning and memory. Miorelli explains that these factors are vital to the organism’s survival throughout its entire lifespan that they are unchanged during the transformation. The remainder of the brain becomes new and improved for the insects new and improved body.

From Miorelli’s statement about memory remaining intact through both the life of the caterpillar and butterfly, we can assume that my question about butterflies remembering being caterpillars right?! There was a randomized control trial performed by the University of Edinburgh in the U.K. in order to prove exactly that. Manduca sexta caterpillars were electrically shocked in combination with a distinct smell to train their distaste for that specific aroma (2). The null hypothesis in this experiment was that the caterpillars would not be able to remember their aversion to the smell post metamorphosis. The alternative hypothesis was that the caterpillars would remember their aversion to the smell post metamorphosis. Interestingly enough, their distaste was still present after experiencing several molts, but was no longer present after metamorphosis. The scientists concluded that in order to retain a memory once the organism is a butterfly, it needs to occur in later stages in the larval time period. The scientists then tested larvae more developed than the original group. The scientists’ prior conclusion was correct because the butterflies that were tested later in their life remembered their distaste for the odor. Additionally, it is possible that this field suffers from the file drawer problem because in the documentation of this study it stated that there were no competing studies.

Overall, butterflies are able to remember some stuff from their caterpillar life, but from what I can see here it is strictly biological and in relation to their well-being. I doubt that the butterflies can remember personal experiences that they had as a caterpillar, but then again I don’t even know if insects even have those.

"So what if I metamorphosed way before you? It changes nothing: We're still BFF, right?"


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Source 1: Miorelli, Nancy. “What Happens Inside a Cocoon?” Ask an Entomologist. N.p., 07 Mar. 2015. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Source 2: Blackiston, Douglas, Elena Casey, and Martha Weiss. “Retention of Memory through Metamorphosis: Can a Moth Remember What It Learned As a Caterpillar?” PLOS One. PLOS, 5 Mar. 2008. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.


Why Cramming is Bad

I’m sure most of you have had to deal with being able to remember the lyrics to a song you haven’t listened to for five years, but as soon as you have to memorize some flashcards for an exam you’re mind goes blank. Why is that? Why can’t my brain just memorize what I want it to memorize?!


One reason as to why when you are studying you cannot seem to remember anything is because the amount of stress you are feeling. There is actually a principle that was named after two scientists, Yerkes and Dodson, stating just that. The two performed a randomized control trial on a set of mice to see how long it took them to learn to travel down a white pathway as opposed to a black one. The independent variable in this scenario is the intensity of the electric shocks given if they travel down the black pathway, and the dependent variable is the amount of time it takes to avoid the black pathway. The scientists came to see that a stronger shock would cause the mice to move faster away from the passage they were intended to avoid, and a smaller shock would take longer for the mice to learn to avoid it. I think that most people can agree that this scenario would make sense seeing as I would also try to avoid being electrically shocked.


However, as other scientists began to perform meta analysis on Yerkes’ and Dodson’s work, they came to realize that there is more than just the two outcomes of performance. With too little motivation (ex. a test really far away), you have little incentive to act, therefore your performance is also at a low level. As the test moves closer, you have a higher incentive to act, and your performance level is also high because stress has not conquered your ability to study effectively. And lastly, when it is an hour before the exam, you have lots of motivation to study, but your performance is shot because your stress levels are off the charts.


The image above depicts the three separate scenarios. Originally, the hypotheses that had existed explained that arousal and performance were positively correlated, forming a positively sloped line.

The field of arousal and performance does not suffer from the file drawer problem, in fact, there have been many experiments completed and documented. Another example is a study done by Broadhurst in 1957. His population for his randomized control trial was rats as opposed to mice, and his motivation tactic was oxygen level. His experiment concluded a curving correlation between arousal and ability to function as well.

However, scientists are unable to say that there is a direct causal relationship between stress and productivity. Backs, who in 2001 evaluated the signs of a heavy workload by measuring individuals’ heart rates and breathing rates, believes that he found a causal relationship between the two components. However, he explains that many scientists use physical measurements to make causal conclusions about the mental health of a person or population. He warns that the assumption used in this technique should not be trusted because within a relationship that seems obvious, there could be many hidden causes that the scientists are unable to identify, also known as confounding variables.

Overall, it is evident that it is better to start studying early before the exam in order to keep productivity high and stress levels low. Not only will it help you score better, but may be beneficial to your physical health in keeping the levels of your cardiac and respiratory system balanced.


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Source: Staal, Mark A. “Stress, Cognition, and Human Performance: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework.” (n.d.): n. pag. Nasa. Nasa, Aug. 2004. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.


Why is Breakfast the Most Important Meal of the Day?

I have heard the phrase “breakfast is the most important meal of the day” countless times throughout my life. My parents have said it to me, I have read it in various blogs about how to lose weight, I have seen it on TV shows, and I even tell myself that when I wake up really hungry (aka every morning). But despite the many times that I have heard this phrase, I have never questioned why it’s true. Why is breakfast the most important meal of the day?183_-_joeys_shirt

John Ivy, a professor at the University of Texas at Austin, states that breakfast is what sets us up to take on the day. Not only does it give us the energy to perform physically, such as getting up and making it through the walk to class, but it also allows us to wake up our brain and function intellectually (1). During the day, most people eat meals every 4-5 hours and usually snack in between. At night however, people go much longer without eating anything because they are sleeping, causing carbohydrate levels to decrease dramatically. Both the muscular system and the nervous system benefit from higher levels of carbohydrates, creating more susceptibility to drowsiness and lack of motivation. Breakfast restocks the body with the necessary carbohydrates to have a productive and energetic day.

In addition to supplying your body with strength, breakfast has the ability to lower stress. Stress is a major concern for college students, so any remedy big or small can make a big difference. Like I said before, we don’t eat anything while we sleep, so our carbohydrate and glucose levels continue to lower as time passes. At a certain point in the night, the body needs to prevent the glucose levels from dropping too intensely, so cortisol (the stress hormone) is released in order to alert your body to start breaking down muscle and fat. In order to reduce the cortisol levels, glucose needs to be added to the body to replace it. The best way to do this is when you first wake up, so that way you don’t start off your day stressed out!


The International Journal of Obesity performed a study to understand more about missing breakfast and weight gain. The longitudinal, observational study included providing just under 14,000 boys and girls ages 9-14 with questionnaires asking about their breakfast habits, their BMIs, physical activity, inactivity, energy intake, ethnicity, and school work (2).The questionnaire was mailed to the children once every year for three years. The null hypothesis in the study is that skipping breakfast does not cause weight gain, and the alternative hypothesis is that skipping breakfast does cause weight gain.

The results surprised me because the overweight children that participated actually lowered their BMI by not eating breakfast compared to those who did eat breakfast. However, the children with an average weight for their age had their BMI increased when skipping breakfast regularly compared to those who do eat breakfast. Reverse causation could not be provided as an explanation due to time passed. However, there could be some third variables such as family history and income. Overall, there was a positive correlation between breakfast consumption and weight loss in children with average BMIs. Despite overweight children losing fat by skipping breakfast, there were still many positive results from breakfast consumption. They reported more energy and better quality of school work. I think that the benefits outweigh the costs for children with all body types.

Even though the study was only relevant to children ages 9-14, John Ivy also reported many potential gains from eating breakfast daily for all ages. I am going to be sure to continue eating my oatmeal with fruit, and I am going to encourage you to eat your favorite breakfast too!

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Source 1: Ivy, John L. “Why Breakfast Is the Most Important Meal of the Day | EAS Academy.” EAS Academy. Abbot, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Source 2: Berkey, C. S. “Longitudinal Study of Skipping Breakfast and Weight Change in Adolescents.” Nature. Nature Publishing Group, 10 May 2003. Web. 26 Nov. 2016.

Why is it OK to Eat Raw Fish in Sushi?

I have never been a fan of sushi, and I think it is because I have never been able to move past the idea of eating something raw. Isn’t that always what doctors say not to do?! My sister raves about the spicy tuna roll and is consistently attempting to trick me into eating it. Occasionally I am tempted, but the risk of food poisoning is too large. Or is it…?


Similar to any other uncooked meat, fish carries the risk of transmitting bacteria and/or parasites into your body. That is definitely about as fun as it sounds (in other words, not fun at all!!). Some examples of the dangers you are exposing yourself to are Scombroid poisoning, gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, and even tape worm (Burger). Scombroid occurs when the fish is not prepared with the correct procedure for serving, and it begins to rot. The symptoms are similar to other common reactions of food poisoning (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc. Find the complete list here). However, consuming raw fish can also lead to much more severe and life-long consequences. The neurological symptoms mentioned above are stemmed from a contamination that fish, existing in tropical waters, are born with, known as ciguatera (Burger). Some symptoms are dysfunction of the cerebellum (the area of the brain where coordination is monitored), and neuropathy (Pearn).

Neuropathy is especially serious because it effects multiple regions of the peripheral nervous system: the sensory nerves, the motor nerves, and autonomic nerves (Webberley). Both the sensory nerves and the motor nerves deal mostly with hands and feet; altering sensation with sensitivity to pain, tingling, and numbness, while also causing those limbs to become unstable. The autonomic nerves regulate internal organs, such as the liver and the heart. Without an effective transmission of information on how to operate, a low heart rate and high blood pressure are likely to generate (Webberley). A low heart rate can lead to an insufficient supply of blood entering the brain, and can cause dizziness, fainting, and in severe cases, cardiac arrest (American Heart Association). High blood pressure has similar symptoms of a low heart rate, however it also includes a possibility of anxiety (AHA).

I don’t know if I’m ever going to eat fish again!

Fortunately, the Food and Drug Administration carefully monitors the process in which the fish must be prepared in order to be edible. Usually when people look to purchase or order food they want the freshest of the bunch, but that’s not what you want when it comes to fish used for sushi. There are two options when it comes to readying the fish: freezing it for a week at a temperature of negative four degrees Fahrenheit, or if you want it ready for dinner tomorrow night, you can freeze it for only fifteen hours at negative 31 degrees Fahrenheit (Burger). Going through the full freezing process of the fish ensures that all of the parasites, that could infect you with any of the horrible and scary illnesses explained above, are killed off. In fact, the chance of you being affected by the fish’s bacteria is so low, that actually the risk of being infected by the rice in sushi is higher. Who knew?!



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“Bradycardia | Slow Heart Rate.” Heart. American Heart Association, 23 Oct. 2014. Web. 10 Sept. 2016.

Burger, Joanna. “Is Sushi Safe to Eat?” LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 3 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Sept. 2016.

Davis, Charles Patrick. “Scombroid Poisoning: Facts About This Fish Poisoning.” EMedicineHealth. N.p., 26 Mar. 2015. Web. 10 Sept. 2016.

Pearn, J. “Neurology of Ciguatera.” Neurology of Ciguatera. BMJ, 23 Aug. 2000. Web. 10 Sept. 2016.

Webberley, Helen. “Neuropathy: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 18 Mar. 2016. Web. 10 Sept. 2016.






The Physical Danger of Trendy Diets

It’s common for people to want to lose weight quickly before a big event or a trip, but there is a right way to lose weight and a wrong way to lose weight. Recently, there has been a trend of trying to use certain diets that celebrities have used in the past. Many of those diets are ridiculous and basically consist of starving yourself.

One of the most famous of these diets is the “Master Cleanse”. Beyonce went on this particular diet, and so of course, many people followed in her footsteps. At least they attempted to follow in her footsteps (myself included), but the diet is very strenuous on the body. The diet was originally founded in the 1940’s as a remedy for ulcers, and then later altered to the description to a weight loss plan. The layout of the plan is to only consume three selected meals for ten to fourteen days, and then gradually add in other food after. Sounds easy enough right?! However, when I say “meals” I mean liquids, and when I say “add in other food after” I mean you actually get to eat solid food again. There are four drinks permitted for the diet: a Salt Water Wash, a Lemonade Drink, Peppermint Tea, and Herbal Laxative Tea. The Lemonade Drink is the main source of energy from the cleanse, and it is the drink that is taken the most often; six to twelve glasses per day. The ingredients of the drink are lemon juice, water, cayenne pepper, and maple syrup.


While the maple syrup may charge your body with some energy, there are many side effects due to the lack of nutrients in the Master Cleanse diet. Pulled from the full list from the Master Cleanse site, nausea, dizziness, and diarrhea are just some of the negative reactions the body may encounter. The Master Cleanse claims that experiencing these side effects indicates that you need to drink more of the lemonade, and that the diet is actually working! Great!

In reality, the reasons you are feeling so bad is because your body is not receiving the calories or nutrients it desperately needs. An average grown woman should be consuming anywhere between 1500-2000 calories per day in order to be functioning properly (Gunnars). The Master Cleanse diet only supplies the body with 650 calories per day, and keep in mind, that is only if you are drinking all twelve glasses of the lemonade drink (Cespedes). With simple math, it is evident that the Master Cleanse is 850 calories behind the minimum recommended daily calorie count. Yikes.


In addition to falling behind in calories, your metabolism drops because your body thinks it is being starved. In order to conserve energy, your body stores fat (which is the exact opposite of what you are trying to do). While the fat is being stored, your muscle is what is sacrificed to burn (Gueren).

Not only are you contradicting the purpose of the diet, but you are putting yourself in some serious medical risk. Like I said before, the body does not function the way it is supposed to without the correct amount of nutrients entering the body. So, the body will have to resort to taking the nutrients from itself. The most severe risks include: broken bones, anemia, and various heart problems. Your bones will grow weak because your body needs calcium, anemia could result from your body removing the iron from your blood for uses in other parts of the body, and lastly, your heart is the most important muscle in your body, and since you tend to lose muscle mass during crash diets, your heart can grow weak. For the complete list of all potential risks (including emotional), you can find them here.

The best and healthiest way to lose weight is to eat right and stay fit!imgres-2


Cespedes, Andrea. “How Many Calories Are in the Master Cleanse Diet?”LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 10 Sept. 2015. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

Dreifke, Sarah. “Why A Crash Diet Isn’t A Healthy Solution / Nutrition / Healthy Eating.” Why A Crash Diet Isn’t A Healthy Solution / Nutrition / Healthy Eating. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

Gueren, Casey. “Here Is What Crash-Dieting Does To Your Body.” BuzzFeed News. Buzzfeed Inc., 11 Mar. 2015. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

Gunnars, Kris. “How Many Calories Should You Eat Per Day to Lose Weight?”Authority Nutrtion. Authority Nutrtion, 29 July 2016. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

“Master Cleanse – Lemonade Water Detox Diet- Effective Recipe For Weightloss – 7Min Blog.” 7Min Blog. 7Min Blog, 15 July 2016. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

Olaski, Mike. “Master Cleanser Side Effects: The Definitive List.” The Master Cleanse. The Master Cleanse, 20 Jan. 2016. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

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Can My Cats Understand Me?

I have always been an animal lover, and I will approach any dog or cat on the street as if it were my own (which doesn’t turn out to always be the best idea). My family has adopted their fair share of cats throughout the time that I have been around, adding up to around six. Ever since I can remember, I have held one-sided conversations with my cats, and kind of always assumed that they were listening without even considering the fact that they didn’t understand me.


Recently I came upon a video by New Scientist while progressing through my daily scrolls of social media that reopened my case of whether or not my cats can understand what I say. The video explains that recent MRI scans are showing that dogs have the ability to learn and interpret language. Dogs, just like humans, process the meaning of words with the left hemisphere of their brains, and the tone of the words with the right hemisphere. Additionally, the scans prove that dogs understand more than just the upbeat inflection of a person’s voice. In order to stimulate the reward center in their brain, both the actual word and the sound of your voice paired with the word need to be positive (New Scientist). I looked further into dogs’ communication skills and found that a majority of dogs have the ability to comprehend 165 words, potentially more if the dogs are trained. There is even an exceptionally trained dog who learned 200 words, proving the strong correlation between training and a dog’s ability to understand language (Animal Planet). I figured that if dogs are as advanced as some toddlers, my cats must be able to understand what I say on some level.

I ventured out to see if anyone else had felt a similar connection with their cats. I found an article by a Wildlife Rehabilitation and Cat Physiology and Behavior Specialist who advocated cats’ skills in responding to sound as oppose to the actual words being spoken. Unlike dogs, if a meaningless word or negative word is exclaimed to a cat, they will react as if I had said “come get your food” in the same manner.

So why are dogs more advanced in language than cats? Scientists performed the Strange Situation Classification (SSC) on a group of dogs to understand their attachment to their owners (BTG Studios). The SSC is a study that was performed in 1969 by Mary Ainsworth to examine the attachment levels of children (Simply Psychology). The original study can be found here, but in summary of the article, children ages twelve to eighteen months were observed in contact with their mother, in contact with their mother and a stranger, in contact with the stranger alone, alone, in contact with the stranger again, and in contact with the mother again. Most children had a secure attachment to their mothers, meaning they felt the safe when their mothers were present and unsafe when they were not. When the SSC test was performed on dogs, the results were extremely similar as to when it was performed on humans, however the test was a failure when attempted on cats (BTG Studios). Historically speaking, cats are known to be independent, whereas dogs have a tendency to form a strong companionship with humans due to their nature to live with a pack (BTG Studios). One of the scientists involved in the SSC study with dogs explains that psychologically dogs’ and cats’ brains are the same, but what draws them apart is their discipline (BTG Studios). Due to their instinct of self-reliance, cats are harder to train and therefore learn language. Dogs are easier to train because they are ambitiously looking for approval from their owner (BTG Studios). As I said before, there is a correlation between dogs’ training and their understanding of language, therefore leading me to think that there is a direct cause between consistent training and their understanding.

All in all, my cats sadly cannot translate my language into their cat language, but they can detect my tone of voice and, therefore; my emotion. This makes it possible for them to snuggle with me when I am having a bad day.



New. “Brain Scans Show Dogs Understand What We Say.” YouTube. New Scientist, 31 Aug. 2016. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.

Forbes, Logan. “How Well Do Cats Understand Human Language?” Quora. N.p., 20 Aug. 2015. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

“Can Dogs Understand What We Say?” Dog Training. Animal Planet, 27 Feb. 2015. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.

Douglas, Kate. “Scientists Prove Dogs Are Better Than Cats.” Occasional Observer. BTG Studios, n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.

McLeod, Saul. “Mary Ainsworth.” Simply Psychology. N.p., 06 Sept. 2016. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.

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Hi my name is Anna Strahle, and I am currently a sophomore. I am undecided but thinking of majoring in marketing. I am taking this class because over the summer I had to last minute switch around my entire schedule to fit a specific course, and this was the course with the best ratings. People said to take SC200 if you don’t like science, and that is definitely me.

I didn’t mind taking science classes throughout most of my years of school until junior year of high school when I needed to take chemistry. I didn’t understand the concepts, and my teacher never explained the information and would just expect us to understand what she was saying. My parents didn’t want me to drop down to the lower level, so overall it was a very stressful experience which set me off of all science subjects in the future. funny-dwight-schrute-quote

So far I really enjoy this class, and I really like how Andrew says that if we don’t like a topic we can suggest a new one. I think that most professors don’t think like that, so I feel like the material is going to be very interesting. One part of science that I think is really cool is nutrition because I like to cook. Click here for a link to my favorite apple crisp recipe.