Author Archives: Gulianna E Garry

Does Hot Water Make A Difference?

Washing your hands is something that everybody does. Whether it is before eating or after going the bathroom – we all wash our hands sometime in the day. When its cold out we tend to wash our hands in the warm water, but when its a warm day, we tend to refresh ourselves by washing our hands in cold water. However, should we be washing in just one temperature. Is it possible that one temperature is more beneficial than another temperature for eliminating all bacteria on ones hand?



According to DebGroup, a study was conducted in order to determine if the temperature, being hot water, had any effect on ridding pathogens on one’s hand. In this study, the Null Hypothesis would be that hot water as effective as cold water when washing hands, while the Alternative Hypothesis would be hot water is more effective than cold water when washing. The study surveyed a total of 510 adults and were asked a series of questions regarding how they wash their hands; for example, how often they wash, how they wash, how long they wash for etc. According to National Geographic, 70% of the people surveyed believed that washing their hands in warmer water was more beneficial. By the end of the study it was determined that the hot water had no effect on the amount of pathogens left on the skin compared to cold water. Another study, according to the New York Times, conveyed by scientists from the Joint Bank Group/ Fund Health Services  had participants contaminate their hands. The participants washed their hands for 25 seconds in soap and water ranging from 40 degrees Fahrenheit to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. It was then observed to see if the hands washed in the hotter water had less bacteria than the hands washed in cooler water. The study determined that the temperature had no effect on the outcome of the bacteria on the hands. Hot water is as effective as cold water when washing hands. This would mean that the Null Hypothesis is true. It is true that heat does indeed kill off bacteria, so why would it not be the same for hot imageswater? According to Amanda R. Carrico from Vanderbilt University, she confirms that heat does kill off bacteria. However, she explains that in order to acquire that amount of heat in your water, it would be very unsafe for humans to wash with. That amount of heat would burn and cause great discomfort which all in all, is unnecessary in order to wash your hands. So, as long as you wash your hands with soap and water for the normal amount of 25 seconds, you’ll have clean hands despite the temperature of the water.



Altogether, it does not matter what temperature water you use to wash your hands. Washing your hands is definitely a vital part of everyday living, so as long as you use soap and water, you’ll definitely be clear of any possible bacteria and pathogens lying on your hands. So, make sure you wash your hands, but it won’t matter what water temperature you use!

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Eat Your Carrots!

When I was a baby my mother always told me to make sure I finish all my carrots on my plate or else I would grow up having bad vision. Being the stubborn child I was, I never listened to my mother and refused to eat the carrots. As a child I never believed that eating any type of food could benefit your health, especially if it meant I’d have to eat vegetables. Currently, I have horrible vision and now question whether I should have listened to my mother as a child and eat the carrots. So, could carrots actually benefit your vision? In order to discover this question there are two possible hypothesis, the Null Hypothesis that nothing happens whether you eat carrots or not, or the Alternative Hypothesis that carrots do benefit your eye sight.



According to Medical Daily, in World War 2 British Air Force pilots would eat carrots in order to recognize their enemy in the night time. Although the radars were the only true reason why the British Air Force pilots would find their enemies, it was discovered that there was a nutrient in the carrot that did indeed help one’s eyes. According to Scientific American, carrots contain beta-carotene, but what exactly is beta-carotene? According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, beta-carotene is a pigment found in plants and vegetables that often will give it the orange, red, or yellow look. When beta-carotene is consumed the pigment converts into Vitamin A, and which according to WebMD, Vitamin A helps increase vision. Even though beta-carotene helps increase your vision, it can help other health benefits too. According to WebMD, beta-carotene can help reduce asthma, cope with Alzheimers Disease, and even help with infertility. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant, which means that it protects your body. This would explain why beta-carotene benefits so many common health problems. So, carrots ultimately do help with just more than your eyes; however, are there any other ways to consume beta-carotene? According to Healthaliciousness website, beta-carotene can be found in other vegetables such as sweet potatoes, squash, and even cantaloupes. Even though beta-carotene is common in fruits and vegetables, another alternative for taking beta-carotene supplemental vitamins. So, if you do not enjoy eating your fruits and vegetables, a supplement is the perfect solution in order to make sure you get the correct amount of beta-carotene. All in all, the Alternative Hypothesis is correct, and carrots do benefit your eye sight. 





To my surprise, carrots do help your vision, even if you have bad vision already, it can help improve your vision even to the slightest bit, so it is very important to eat them! However, this information helped me realize that there are so many other ways to help benefit your eyes. All in all, beta-carotene is a very important pigment that most certainly everyone should consume in order to help with not just ones eyes, but other major health effects. Since my eyes currently have horrible vision I intend to consume more food with beta-carotene in order to possible improve my vision to the slightest bit. So, I guess my mother was right – you definitely should eat your carrots.

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Is Your Hair Coloring Safe?

Before beginning school at Penn State University, I had no intentions of ever dying my hair. The longer I was at school, the more I realized how light other girls hair were and that I was sick of always having the darkest hair out of all my friends. So, I did what any person who was sick of their hair color would do – dye it. Sure enough, Thanksgiving break rolled around, and I am now sitting here with blonder hair. Although I now have already dyed my hair, I wonder how safe is dying your hair?

Mandatory Credit: Photo by Julian Mackler/ Shutterstock (4745440bd) Gigi Hadid Costume Institute Gala Benefit celebrating China: Through the Looking Glass, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, America - 04 May 2015

Mandatory Credit: Photo by Julian Mackler/ Shutterstock (4745440bd)
Gigi Hadid
Costume Institute Gala Benefit celebrating China: Through the Looking Glass, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, America – 04 May 2015


People have been dying their hair for hundreds of years; however, how safe can it really be? The Null Hypothesis would be nothing happens when you dye your hair, it is fine to do; while the Alternative Hypothesis would be something does happen when you dye your hair, and it could be harmful. This is something I definitely want to discover, because it could change my views on continuing to dye my hair in the future. In order to determine how safe hair dye is, it is important to know what is in it. According to How Stuff Works, hair dyes have two main ingredients – hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. According to Style Caster, the only possible effects these two ingredients could have on you is to cause you to have dermatitis, swelling, and itching. However, these symptoms are so rare that they’d probably only happen if you dye your hair multiple times in one day every time you dye your hair – which all in all, is a lot of dying that is unreasonable for almost everybody.  Although the ingredients seem to be safe for people to use, a number of people have grown great concern with the possible correlation with dying hair and cancer. Could dying your hair cause cancer? According to The American Cancer Foundation, there have been many studies in order to determine if there is any correlation between cancer and hair dye. One study, exposed animals to a substance to see if any health problems occurred.  While another study, explained that it looked at the rate of cancer in a group of people and to see who was exposed to hair dye and who wasn’t. Although these studies seem to be helpful, there is actually not enough evidence to determine if hair dye does indeed cause cancer, or in fact are harmful at all. So, the Null Hypothesis would stand; however, there are still studies going on to determine if hair dye is harmful.

How To Dye

Although it has been determined that hair dye is not harmful, are there ways that are better to dye your hair? The most common way one dyes their hair is using foil. Accordingthe-hair-color-that-lasts-6-months-1024x679 to Clairol Professional, a hair salon, foiling allows the chemicals in the dye to seep into the hair giving it the change in color. A newer, more natural looking hair dying process, is balayage. This process is by ‘painting’ the hair in order to give it a more natural look. Unlike the foil, the balayage dyes differently and allows some pieces of your hair to be darker or lighter than other part, rather than the whole piece being the same color. So what method of dying is better? According to Modern Salon, is easier on your hair since you are not foiling it up and suffocating it while it takes in the dye. The balayage is much lighter and more free than the foil. Just like Modern Salon, Vogue Australia, agrees to use balayage in the debate between balayage and foil. Even though these top two fashion sites agree with using balayage, there is no health effects on either of them, so ultimately it is up to the person who is getting their hair dyed.



unknownAll in all, the evidence concludes that hair dying is safe and there has been no link to any health effects. The Null Hypothesis stood, but there are still studies going on the determine if hair dye could possibly cause any health effects. The two different ways to dye your hair can determine how it makes your hair look, but ultimately it won’t effect anything about you or your health. In conclusion, hair dying is definitely safe and is definitely something I would recommend doing if you are tired of your normal hair!


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Is Hair Dye Harmful to Your Health?

Gigi Hadid

Does Your Eye Color Mean Anything?

Even when I was a little girl, random people would come up to me and compliment me on my eyes. My bright green eyes have constantly caused people to stop a conversation to tell me how beautiful my eyes are. I am not going to lie, I love being complimented on the color of my eyes, but little do people know I have absolutely horrible vision. I never realized how bad my vision was until the 5th grade when my eye doctor told my mother I desperately needed glasses. The older I got the worse my eyesight got; each doctors appointment  my contact prescription would go higher and higher. So, could there be any possible causation between light eyes and bad eyesight? If so, this would mean the Null Hypothesis would be there is no connection between light eyes and bad eyesight, while the Alternative Hypothesis would be there is a connection between light eyes and bad eyesight. Picture2b1765486a1b924bad87c114d42be543


When looking to discover which of my hypothesis was correct, I came across a lot of interesting studies and news articles. This study,  was conducted to see if darker eyes have better reaction times than lighter eyes. The study observed 59 male rugby athletes regarding a peripheral vision test and a goal-kicking test in order to determine if the darker eyed rugby players had a faster reaction time than the lighter eyed rugby players. At the end of the study it was concluded that the dark eyed rugby had no significant difference than the light eyed rugby players. Although this study supported my Null Hypothesis, there could have been a number of confounding variables and it is unclear the number of light eyed rugby players that are being tested versus the number of dark eyed rugby players that are being tested. According to an article by Everyday Health, lighter eyes tend to be more sensitive to lights. People with lighter eyes have less pigment in their eye than a person with dark eyes. So by having less pigment in your eyes cause you to have worse vision? According to UCSB Science Line, the answer is no – pigment does not effect your vision. But just because pigment does not effect your eyesight, could it be effecting something else? According to Everyday Health, there is a greater chance that people with lighter eyes have a better chance of developing cancer. Why is this? Since people with lighter eyes have less pigment, they have less protection of Ultraviolet Rays, which can increase one’s chances of melanoma of the uvea in the eye. According to the Ocular Melanoma Foundation, Ocular Melanoma has about 2,000 to 2,500 cases in the United State each year. So even though you may have lighter eyes and have a higher chance of developing Ocular Melanoma, it is a very rare cancer that one with lighter eyes should not worry too much about. The easiest way to prevent Ocular Melanoma is not to stare at the sun and to wear sunglasses on bright, sunny days.

Take Away

All in all, the color of your eyes do not have any effect on your vision. For me, I guess I was lucky to have pretty eyes but just unlucky to have bad vision. Therefor, the Null Hypothesis would stand and eye color has no causation to eye vision. Even though eye color does not effect your vision, light eye color can increase your chances of developing Ocular Melanoma. So although my vision may not be affected by my eye color, my eye color may cause me to have a slim chance to develop Ocular Melanoma!



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The Great Barrier Reef – dead?

In my senior year of high school, I decided to take Marine Biology; since I grew up on the Jersey Shore and loved the ocean I figured it would be a very interesting course. Sure enough, every day was filled with a captivating lesson and each field trip consisted of going to the beach and analyzing the marine life. During one lesson, my teacher began to tell my class how she had scuba dived in The Great Barrier Reef in Australia. She presumed to show the class a number of mesmerizing photos that immediately captivated me. The different colors of the coral and the different exotic fish confirmed that one day I too would visit The Great Barrier Reef. It wasn’t until a few weeks ago when my dream of visiting The Great Barrier Reef was presumably crushed. Social media sparked when the pictures below were shared on sites such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. A number of social media users believed these photos were declaring The Great Barrier Reef dead. But is that true? Is The Great Barrier Reef actually dead?


The assumption of The Great Barrier Reef being dead draws two hypotheses; the Alternative Hypothesis, The Great Barrier Reef is not dead, and the Null Hypothesis, The Great Barrier Reef is dead. So what is happening down in Australia? According to Russell Brainard, who is the Chief of Coral Reef Ecosystem, says the Great Barrier Reef is not necessarily dead, but it is indeed dying. Brainard explains that article headings are giving people a scare believing that the Great Barrier Reef is dead, but in actuality it is dying. He says the titles are exaggerating the truth about the Great Barrier Reef being dead, and for people who don’t actually read the full article will actually believe it is dead. People believed that The Great Barrier Reef was dead because of pictures, shown below, of a recent bleaching the coral faced. According to The National Ocean Service, when coral is stressed by changes it overcomes algae will leave the coral leaving the coral very vulnerable. So, there we have it the Alternative Hypothesis stands, The Great Barrier Reef is not dead.




Causes and Prevention

So, although The Great Barrier Reef is not indeed dead, Russell Brainard did explain that The Great Barrier Reef is still in risk of dying. Why is it dying and how can we prevent one of the Seven Wonders of the world from vanishing? According to Scientific American, the corals have faced a severe  bleaching. Bleaching is caused by hot waters which is primarily because of Global Warming. The hot waters cause the coral to spew out algae; the less algae, the less protection the coral has. As the global temperature rises there is a direct correlation to the rise of coral bleaching. So since warm waters and warmer temperatures are causing the Great Barrier Reef and coral reefs all over the world to slowly die, what can we do to prevent it? According to The Nature Conservancy, there are so many little things that everyone can do to help protect the Great Barrier Reef and other coral reefs. One helpful step would be to conserve water; don’t use water that you don’t need, the less you use results the less runoff water that will go into the ocean. Another helpful solution, is to discover what pesticides you are using on your lawn; pesticides can run off in the ocean and possibly hurt marine life. These are only a few measures you can take to help The Great Barrier Reef from official dying, but check out more here!4_28_16_gbr_coralseatemp_720_492_s_c1_c_c



Although The Great Barrier Reef is not officially dead like social media and false News Article Headings said, it is definitely at risk of dying. There is so much to do from conserving water to properly disposing your trash in order to protect it! Don’t let one of the Seven Wonders of the world disappear because we are careless with the way we treat our planet. Even though The Great Barrier isn’t dead it is definitely a scary to wonder a world without the beauty of this coral off of the coast of Australia.

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Is Your Job Causing You To Gain Weight?

About four years ago my mother decided to go back to work. Before going back to work, she was very active. She would run a number of errands around our town, walk our dog at least once a day, and play tennis with friends a few times a week. However; my mother decided to go back to work where she’d be re-entering corporate Wall Street America. Being so, she would be sitting at a desk for a number of hours. After a few months, my mother began to believe she was gaining weight – which is strange because my mother has always been very skinny. Could her sitting at a desk for numerous hours a day cause her to be gaining weight? I decided to look up to possibilities. The Null Hypothesis would be that sitting at a hypothesis does not effect weight, while the Alternative Hypothesis would be that sitting at a desk does effect weight gain.

According to US Today, 2 in 5 people reported that they have gained weight while working at their current job. Career Builders conducted a study to determine if one’s job was causing them to gain weight. A survey showed that about 55% of workers considered themselves overweight, while 41% of workers explained that they have gained weight at their current job. According to the survey, that involved about 3,600 workers reported between February 11th to March 6th, thimagesose who worked at a desk had a higher chance of gaining weight – a total of 56% people they studied gained weight because of sitting at a desk. This would conclude that sitting at a desk does effect weight gain, causing the Alternative Hypothesis to be correct.


But, why do people who sit at desk during work tend to gain more weight? According to Dr. Mercola, our bodies are supposed to be actively moving; however, the average american adult sits between 9 to 10 hours a day. Those who are sitting for the majority of the day tend to not be getting active and the calories they are consuming are not being burned off. When you sit for too long, your heart is not pumping the blood as fast and your muscles are not burning as much fat off. A study conducted at The University of Texas Arlington supports that those who sit during the day are at a disadvantage of those who are active throughout the day. According to Darla Hamann and four of her other colleagues, they studied a non-profit financial service group for a course of 52 weeks. The workers in the study traded in their sitting dimgresesks for a new treadmill working station – so when they worked they could walk on the treadmill. The workers could sit or leave the station whenever they pleased throughout the study. After 52 weeks, workers lost on average 74 more calories than they did without the treadmills. This may not seem like a lot of calories, but compared to gaining calories it is a win. This study helps explain that by just sitting around you are gaining weight by not doing anything like the workers did before; however, when they switched to the treadmills they were no longer gaining weight, but in fact losing weight too.


Now that it is proven that sitting at a desk for hours causes you to gain weight, how can one prevent it from happening to them? Since the study I explained above worked so well, one could change their sitting desk into a treadmill desk. That option may be the best; however, it can be very costly. According to Health, changing what foods you bring in for lunch. For example, instead of bringing in that leftover Chinese food, try bringing a salad with some fruit on the side. Another idea Health explains, is trying to get up and walk for a little bit to get your muscles moving. The small, healthier options you make at work can change a lot in your life as a whole.

Although weight can be one effect from sitting at a desk all day, Dr. Mercola explains other health problems that occur if you do not get up and get active throughout your day at work. According to Dr. Mercola, your pancreas can be highly effected by sitting throughout the day. By sitting, your pancreas is  producing a high amount of insulin, which could result in some form of diabetes. Sitting for long periods of times can also cause posture problems in your neck and your back because you can be straining your vertebrae.



There are so many negative correlations with sitting for a long period of time, that all in all one should definitely get up and walk around for a little. Weight gain is a serious problem especially in those who work long hours at a desk everyday. Sitting at desks do indeed cause weight gain and as I discovered even more health problems. Hopefully more people will be able to learn from this in order to reduce weight gain in the work field.

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How Your Miserable Day Job Can Help Launch Your Freelance Career


How Great is a Tanning Bed?

Growing up on the Jersey Shore, it’s a given that I love going to the beach. The beach had so much to offer, from body surfing in the ocean to reading a book in the hot sand to tanning. Spending my whole summer at the beach, obviously I love to fry up and get a little color. I love when you can see the tan lines of your bathing suit and the freckles on your nose start to pop out. However, when the summer ends so does your tan. No more tan lines showing which bathing suit you were wearing that day and no more freckles on your face. The weather soon changes and instead of wearing bathing suits we are wearing heavy jackets. Soon enough the post-depression of summer ends, but it was not until a friend had mentioned that she still goes tanning even in theimgres winter. She explained and even brought me to a tanning salon where she says she visits quite frequently so she doesn’t lose that summer glow. I thought what a great idea in order to stay tan, but are tanning beds actually safe for us? There are two possible hypothesis before researching more into the topic. The Null Hypothesis being that nothing bad for your health happens when you use a tanning bed, while the Alternative Hypothesis would be something bad for your happens when you use a tanning bed.


According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, tanning beds use two different types of UV rays, UVB, which helps build melanin, and UVA, which helps turn that melanin into a bronze. Each time you decide to use a tanning bed, you increase your chances of getting melanoma, the most dangerous skin disease.

So, is there a difference between tanning in a bed or tanning outside?

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, tanning in a bed is more dangerous. Although you are only receiving a tan for a short period of time, the UV rays you are being exposed to are at higher levels than the sun outside.

Since the Alternative Hypothesis that tanning beds cause something bad for you was true, I thought I’d take it a step further to prove how bad tanning beds really can be for you.



A study by Bonial and other collegues was determined to discover if tanning beds were linked with melanoma. This meta-analysis was based on 27 different studies in order to determine a conclusion. Throughout the study it was noted that after each use of a tanning bed one had a 1.8% increase of receiving the cancer. Other data showed that in 3,438 cases of melanoma were linked to people using tanning beds. The conclusion of this study proved that tanning beds do indeed increases one’s chances of getting melanoma.

The data alone shows that by using a tanning bed, your chances of getting cancer increases with each use. Although my friend decided to use a tanning bed, I believe it is safer not to use one. I rather just wait until summer to lay on the beach and get a healthy tan!

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Injuries vs. Rain

My whole entire life I’d been playing competitive sports, whether it was soccer or lacrosse, I never once got seriously injured. Sure, I had gotten bruises and definitely felt sore after games, but never once broke a bone from a sport until a dumb, little flag football game. During a flag football game my junior year I had been hit and broke my hand, which resulted in having to undergo surgery in order to place two permanent screws in my hand. Obviously I was angered and annoyed that it would take a while for my hand to feel back to normal; however, it was not until someone had told me I’d still feel pain in my hand when it rains is when I became even more paranoid. Would this really happen to me and is it true that rain causes our bones to feel pain? And is there a possibility that this pain could cause me to have arthritis in years to come? I was determined to figure this out by testing hypothesis and researching data in order to discover which hypothesis was correct. The null hypothesis would be rain does not cause joint pain, while the alternative hypothesis would be rain does cause joint pain.

According to Annie Hausser, barometric pressure may have something to do with why one could feel pain in their joints when it is about to rain.  Barometric pressure is the weight in the air in the atmosphere. When barometric pressure is low, the weather tends to be worse which can result in rain, ice, or possibly snow. But what does this have to do with our joints? According to Dr. James Gladstone, joint linings and the ligaments have nerve linings which when the weather pressure changes one will feel stiffness in the joint. Robert Jamison, PhD and a Professor at Harvard Medical School, conducted a study with people who had severe chronic pain to see if when the barometric pressure dropped would the people feel more pain. The results concluded that 67.9% of the people who had severe chronic pain felt more pain when the barometric pressure dropped!  This information concludes that the alternative hypothesis stands and rain does cause joint pain because of the change in barometric pressure.


So would I be feeling this pain now? According to the Arthritis Foundation, if I were to be feeling this pain I’d already have arthritis. Lucky for me, I have not yet to feel pain in my hand; yet since my fracture was considered a ‘traumatic injury’ (usually an injury caused in sports or accidents) I am more likely to develop osteoarthritis. According to the U.S Center for Sports Medicine, this type of arthritis occurs when cartilage is damaged, resulting in it not being able to be replaced. That is why this type of arthritis is so common in people who have shoulder or knee replacements or in my case screws implanted in my hand. Treatment for this type of arthritis varies by the severity of it and is best to be consulted by an orthopedic doctor. Another possible way to lower your pain when the weather gets worse, is to bundle up. According to the Arthritis and Osteoporosis in Western Australia,  by keeping heat in your body, you are less likely to feel the pain. For example, it’d be smart to wear gloves or mittens if you get the arthritis pains in your hand.  So, even though I don’t feel pain now, my chances are very high because of my type of injury.imgres


All in all, it is proven that rain and weather can cause pain to one’s joints. By having a traumatic injury to bones and joints, the chances of one feeling pain on gloomy days is much higher than a person who never injured a bone or joint. I definitely consider being more careful next time you play a sport because you do not want to feel pain just from a rainy day!

Here is a link to help those who already have arthritis pain to see how the barometric pressure is dropping near you.

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Approach to Hand XRays






Can Eating Breakfast Benefit You?

Waking up every morning promptly at 6:30 a.m to go to school, I never had the motivation to do anything. I never wanted to wear a nice outfit, put my makeup on, but the one thing I hated the most was eating breakfast. Even at a young age, eating breakfast too early in the morning would make me extremely nauseous. I’d often complain to my teachers and ask to go to the nurse, which then aggravated my parents when they constantly would get the call. However, my mother would not give up. She was convinced breakfast was the most important meal of the day and would make me at least snack on a small granola bar before enduring a seven hour school day. After hundreds of fights and middle school finally beginning, my mother lost her battle and I never ate breakfast before school again. Was my decision a good idea though? Earlier in the week during my Penn State Freshman business seminar class, we were visited by someone who could help people cope with stress. She soon began to explain that eating can help with stress and that studies show students who eat breakfast tend to be better students. Could this be true? I had figured I had been doing fine in school, but could I have been doing better? Are people who eat breakfast better students?121218_kids_pickyeaters_border-jpg-crop-original-original


Here are the possibilities I concluded which could help prove the mechanism between the relationship of breakfast and good students. Either the Null Hypothesis being that eating breakfast does not influence positive school behavior or the Alternative Hypothesis being that breakfast does influence positive school behavior. I was determined to discover the answer in order to change my morning habits.

According to Livestrong, students who eat breakfast in the morning have a better concentration and are able to understand topics more clearly because of their alertness. According to an article written in The Guardian, a study performed by Cardiff University evaluated a total of 5000 students from ages 9 to 11. The University was determined to discover any link between breakfast and the students academic performance. According to the The Telegraph, the children were observed from about 6 to 18 months and were asked to report what they had for breakfast every morning. When the study was finished, the results proved that students that were doing better in school. The study linked between earlier test scores to newer test scores and discovered it was much higher than before. By eating breakfast, some students were able to reach twice the amount above average scores on assessments. According to Hannah Littlecott, the leader of the study, before this experiment it was very unclear if breakfast does indeed cause a positive school behavior. Obviously, from this study school performance is influenced by eating breakfast. Therefor, this would mean the Alternative Hypothesis is correct.imgres

Even though it is now proven that eating breakfast causes one to be a better student, why is breakfast causing them to better students rather than a meal later in the day? According to a study conducted by The University of Bath in the United Kingdom, they asked a group of people to eat 700 calories before 11 a.m. and every five minutes their blood pressure would be tested. The chart shown on the below explains how those who did eat breakfast, the orange, had a more stable blood sugar flow throughout the day than those who did not eat breakfast, the blue, who had a more sporadic blood sugar flow throughout the day.crm_body_on_breakfast_chart_10-14By eating breakfast one will be able to maintain their blood sugar which allows you to be able to maintain your energy which will allow you to be more alert in school throughout the day.

So, after understanding the results and this study it does seem like a good idea to eat breakfast before school. As long as you are eating something as simple as a bowl of cereal, the study confirms that it’ll help you become a much better student. I know that I will definitely be eating breakfast before my classes to ensure I can get at least a little boost on my academic performance!


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What is the moon really doing to us?

Living so close to New York City, you could never see the stars shining in the midst of the night. However, once a month when there was a full moon, my whole house would glisten from the moon’s presence. When I was about seven years old my father and I both could not sleep from the moonlight outside. He began to tell me how he worked as a police officer at Bellevue Hospital in New York City when he was in is early twenties. He explained how every full moon he was assigned to work at the psychiatric ward because patients would tend to act a little more ‘crazier’ than usual. I was shocked that my dad would even believe that , but I was even more surprised by my dad statement that a full moon could make you crazier. So, does can the moon change one’s behavior?

According to Scientific American, the word lunatic derives from the word ‘luna’ which in the English language means imgresmoon. According to greek philosopher Aristotle, the brain was the moistest organ in the body which would trigger the water in it, just how the moon effects the tides. For hundreds of years, the theory of the moon causing one to act strange has come up in a number of folklores. For example, Werewolves are believed to change their identity and turn into a wolf on and only on a full moon. So, do full moons really make us go a little looney? In class we learned to discuss both the null and the alternative hypothesis. In this experiment we can apply our class discussion in order to make a clearer understanding of which hypothesis stands. So, he Null Hypothesis would be that a full moon has no effect on people, while the Alternative Hypothesis would be that a full moon does effect people. Picture

imgres-1According to scientist, Ernest Naylor, animals such as the crawfish tend to change their activities when a full moon is present. Although an animal seems to be effected by the moon does that necessarily mean that humans are effected by the moon. Yet, a study performed by psychiatrist Arnold Lieber may explain that a full moon does effect someone’s brain. Arnold Lieber demonstrated a study and collected over fifteen years of homicide data to see if there was any correlation. The study would test if the amount of homicides present at different points in the phases of the moon. Sure enough, when the moon was full there were more homicides than when the moon was new. So according to this study, there is a strong correlation between the moon and murder. Even though something did occur in this experiment, because there is not enough evidence to fully support that one’s behavior is effected by the moon this experiment is just a false positive and the null hypothesis still stands.

Even though this experiment had strong evidence, it is still not proven that the moon does indeed effect one’s behavior. The studies still make much sense why police and psychiatric wards would want to have more people on duty, since there still is a possibility that the moon could have an effect on  behavior. It definitely is better to be safe than sorry when studies show that the moon could possibly effect one’s way of thinking. There should be more experiments so we can find a conclusion to whether or not the moon effects our behavior.


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Does Coffee Hurt or Help?

Waking up for high school at 6 in the morning  was the hardest part of the day, but I always knew an Iced Coffee from Dunkin Donuts would surely get me in a better mood. Before school started, I’d often drive over to the Dunkin Donuts only about a mile away from my school. I’d see the same faces every morning and they knew I was always happy when I saw my medium mocha iced coffee in the hands of the barista. A few sips in and I tasted happiness, but it wasn’t until the whole coffee was gone and I was finally settled in at my first period class when the stomach cramps would finally begin. I’d often feel nauseous and my palms would began to sweat, but I had always sacrificed this feeling in order to feel more awake and enjoy the taste of it. Why does coffee continuously give me stomach cramps and is there any possible way of preventing it?

According to Shannon Campbell, it is common for people to have stomach pains after drinking coffee. However, there is not just one reason why people can suffer from this stomach pain. One reason could be because of coffee’s caffeine. The caffeine can have a negative affect on people because it produces acid, which can cause an upset stomach. Another possible reason could not be the coffee at all, but because of a confounding variable – the milk. Many humans suffer from being lactose intolerant and don’t even know it. So, when they order their coffee with milk, it could just be the milk causing their stomach stress and not the coffee. The simplest answer to this problem could just be consuming coffee on an empty Sometimes coffee just doesn’t settle with one’s stomach when they haven’t eaten anything.

Although those answers could be the reason why coffee upsets our stomach, how can we prevent it from happening? According to WebMD, a certain chemical produced when darker-roasted coffee is roasted could help relieve stomach pain.  According to coffee chemistry, the chemical is produced because of extreme temperature the coffee bean undergoes during the roasting. At high temperatures, the coffee bean begins to internally crack, which ultimately makes this chemical. The chemical is less acidic; however, it is only found in a dark-roast coffee. So, if your looking for a lighter-roasted coffee, this solution doesn’t seem to be much help! Another possible solution could be to just eat something and drink plenty of water before consuming your next cup of coffee.  For those who may fear that the milk is causing them an upset, try substituting the milk with either coconut milk or almond milk, it is much healthier an won’t give you those dreaded stomach cramps.

So, for all the coffee addicts who would do anything for their next cup of coffee, I hope this blog helped! For me, I know that eating before drinking my morning coffee could definitely help, since most mornings I often skip breakfast and substitute it with a cup of coffee – obviously not the smartest decision!

Picture Credit



Does School Starting Later Really Help?

Waking up was the worst part of the day. I would hit my alarm at least three times before actually getting out of my bed ready to begin another seven hour school day. Like always, the clock read 6:30 a.m- now, even being in college, that time still gives me chills. I’d often throw on a pair of yoga pants and any sweatshirt I could find in my closet. It was never a surprise to my first block teachers that I’d be strolling in a few minutes late after the loud, obnoxious bell that rang promptly at 7:21 in the morning. Every morning felt the same – get up, feel tired, complain, be late, and wait until the school day was over. However, that dreaded routine ended when New Jersey Schools began PARCC testing. PARCC testing allowed students to come in at 9:20 a.m opposed to 7:21 a.m if one did not have testing that day. Being able to start school at 9:20, allowed me to be early and actually be happy to attend class. I started to notice that my attention was more focused in class and I was more engaged in conversation with my teachers and peers. Could starting school later have a positive effect on students ability to learn?

stock-photo-tired-teenager-lying-and-sleeping-on-the-school-desk-121132150 Picture credit

According to Dian Schaffhauser, psychologists Pamela Thatcher and Serge Onyper began an experiment on Glen Falls High School to discover if moving school to a later time would benefit the students. The school changed their starting time approximatly 45 minutes later than previous start time. At first, students explained how the later start and end time allowed them to get about twenty more minutes of sleep. So, the high school began to believe that the experiment was giving positive results and Pamela Thatcher and Serge Onyper thought their experiment was working just fine. However, results changed the second time the researchers returned the school. Students explained that they began to fall back in the same routine and they were getting the same amount of sleep. The school reported that students exams and behavior in school shortly went back to the way it was before the experiment began.

I found the experiment above extremely interesting. It intrigued me how once the students got accustomed to the new schedule it went back to the way it was before the new times were put in force. I believe that since my experience with starting school later was only put in affect for six weeks, it did not change my behavior back to normal. It disappoints me how the experiment panned out because from personal experience I felt like a happier student. Perhaps that was just me!


Why are some humans more creative than others?

At a young age, it was a clear understanding that my mother was a very creative person. She had transformed our basement into the ultimate play area that any child would dream of having. The walls were painted telling the story of Winnie the Pooh and Christopher Robins alongside their friends as they explored the Hundred Acre Wood. Ordinary cabinets were turned into giant six foot dominos and bland white tables were painted to feel as if you were attending a fairy tea party. Every detail in our basement was perfected; yet, her ideas did not stop there, she had painted and added murals to give loving vibes throughout our home. When I began school it became evident that I too possessed the same creative characteristics that my mother has. I believed that everyone was just as creative as me and my mother yet, when I discovered that creativity didn’t come naturally to them I wondered why. Why are some humans more creative than others?

Steve Jobs once said “Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they got something they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it they just saw something.” Creativity is more than just inherited genes, it is a way of thinking. Psychologists define creativity as divergent thinking, which is the ability to conclude answers and theories by using many different solutions. People who think divergently don’t use logical steps in order to reach an answer, but instead use spontaneous ideas to discover an answer.

Divergent thinking has been believed to be connected to understanding concepts in one’s long term memory. The picture below explains how one thought connected other thoughts in order to determine the answer. This process is called ‘semantic networking’. For example, the thought process of getting to the word sunsets all started from the word street. Obviously the two words are not at all connected, but by bouncing off other ideas, or words, a divergent thinker can go from street to sunset without any problems. By being able to connect concepts to achieve different answers proves that one is a divergent thinker.

An experiment  conducted by Edward Neckaa and Teresa Hlawaczb was between 60 bankers and 60 artists to understand the difference between divergent, creative thinking and temperament, logical thinking. It was discovered that the artists did posses the temperament thinking just like the bankers; however, the artists scored much higher on the divergent thinking process than the artists did. According to Neckaa and Hlawaczb, the artists possessed characteristics such as briskness, endurance, and activity which shows that more creative people are able to understand and change their way of thinking quicker than temperament thinkers are. As the experiment concluded, the most interesting piece of evidence the scientists took away was that temperament thinking is at the base of all creativity. So, if the artists weren’t able to think logical like the bankers, they would not be able to think divergently.

So are you a divergent thinker?

Here is a link that can help you determine if you’re a more temperament or divergent thinker:




Chemistry ruined science

Hi my name is Gulianna Garry and I’m from Holmdel, New Jersey. I am currently undecided; however, I am planning to major in something to do with business and later go on to law school. Growing up in New Jersey, I often spend my summers on the beach with friends and family. I also love visiting New York City, for I am originally from Brooklyn, New York. I’m excited to see what Science 200 has to offer since it isn’t your ‘typical’ science class!

Science has never been a strong suit in my family. Both my parents tried to avoid as many science classes as possible when they were in school, so it was no surprise that I would struggle with science. When I was younger, science was enjoyable, I loved making the solar system out of cakes and coloring imprints of leaves. Yet, the day I began chemistry I knew I would begin a long hatred of science. Throughout the year I struggled understanding the conversions of mole island and where to put the decimal. After long nights of studying and still never understanding any concepts, it was official that chemistry was ruining my life. So, why would I take a course that specifically has the word ‘science’ in it’s course name? My advisor had informed me that this class was not your average science class and that you wouldn’t have to remember formula’s or rehearse definitions, so I figured it seemed like a class I would enjoy. After taking only two classes of this course, it is clear to see that this is no ‘typical’ science class and by using your own thoughts and theories, you could discover your own answers. picture


It is pretty clear why I am not a science major – I am just not good at it. Although science helps shape the world into a better place, I couldn’t picture myself constantly studying it. Even though I am not very good at science, I do still find it quite interesting. I enjoy reading different articles about new discoveries found throughout the world. I believe this article, would be interesting to share to the class because it is one step closer in believing there is life somewhere else in the galaxy!