Author Archives: Nathan Andrew Morningstar

Are our smartphones affecting sleep?

We use them everyday, we use them to talk to our friends, forward emails, and finding information that we need in a flash. Yes , Im talking about that fancy cell phone in your pocket, but did you know that your cell phone is affecting you in more than one way? Cell phone use can affect the amount of sleep..

When we use our phone, the light that the screen emits, also known as “blue light” is recieved by the rods and cones the interpret light in our eyeball. Normally, when we use our cell phones during the day, it does not affect us because we are wide awake, however the problems begin whenever we try to go to sleep. According to a study done by the Lighting research Center tested the effect the blue light would have to the level of melatonin  that the body produces, which helps the body regulate it’s natural circadian rhythm or sleep cycle. When performing the experiment, the researchers tested how melatonin levels where affected not only by the lenght of exposure to the blue light emmited from a tablet and the distance that the tablet was held from the face, but also how wearing different filtering goggles would effect the levels of melatonin in the body as well. After the first hour that the experiment was conducted through the three different types of glasses, orange,  clear, and googles that were fitted with blue light leds. After one hour of exposure, the goggles that were fitted had the lowest amount of melatonin produced, with only 4pg/ml being made while the other glasses allowed the body to make double that, 8pg/ml. However, after two hours of exposure, the blue light glasses had continues to surppress that amount of melatonin that was made by the body, those amounts still remaining at 4 pg/ml, while the two other goggles allowed the body to create even higher levels of melatonin.


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This problem was seen mainly by people ages that were ages 18-24, compared to people who are old than that group. However, one common issue that all age groups that reported having issues sleeping after reporting that they had kept their phone in the bedrooms within arms reach while they slept , compared to those that their phone in their bedroom but out of reach and those that kept their phones out of their bed rooms. This study was conducted thorugh a poll that had a total of 4700 respondents, with ages ranging from 18 to 65 and older.

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Images from


How Smartphones Hurt Sleep. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Wood B, Rea MS, PlitnickB, Figuerio MG. 2013, Light Level and duration of exposure determine the impact of Self- Luminous Tabvlets on Melatonin suppression. Applied Ergonomics


Does sleep affect your BMI?

Getting a good nights sleep is beneficail in many ways, it allows our body to naturally recover from physical activities that are performed, as well as helping regulate the hormones in our body. With this in mind, can the loss or gain of sleep affect the body mass index of a person.

According to a study that was performed by Shahrad Taheri, Ling Lin, Diane Austin, Terry Young, Emmanuel Mignot may point to that being a posibility. The experiment was performed to see if differences in the amount of sleep that a person had gotten affected the metabolism affecting hormones leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, insulin, glucose. The study want conducted through the use of surveys that were mailed to 1024 participants. These participants were both male and female, and were origianlly examined for a inital baseline that would be measured agianst throughout the experiments. Individuals were required to complete sleep journals as well as to complete surveys that were sent to to the participants every 5 years, to track and monitor any changes that a participant may have had to the amount of sleep. The orginal hypothesis that was being tested was suggested that leptin and ghrelin would be affected by how much sleep or lack of sleep a participant would have, ultimately affect their body mass index. After the experiment was completed it was seen that there was a signifact response to the body mass index of a person compared to to the amount of sleep that they had gotten.


It was seen that individuals that had less than 7.5 hour of sleep produced fewer amounts of leptin than those that had  more than 7.5 hours of sleep( refer to chart A of Image). In the case of ghrelin production and sleep, there was a notciable increase in the hormone leptin that person had if they had a lower average of hours slept than those that a higher average of hours slept. With these two results, it was also seen that those participants that had lower averages of for hours of sleep obtained also had a higher BMI comprared to those that had a higher average of hours of sleep.


From the information from this study it could be seen that sleep does play a vital role, not only in the regulation of hormones in your body, but also the regulation of hormaones and can affect your BMI.

Pictures are found here


Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E (2004) Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index. PLoS Med 1(3): e62. doi:10.1371/


How does time management affect academic performance?

As students, we are expected to be able to balance school, studying, work, all while maintaining social expectations, but how does time management affect our academic performance?

According to a study that was conducted by Faisal Z. Miqdadi, Abdulla F. ALMomani, Mohammad T. (Shadid Masharqa), and Nabil M. Elmousel, time management does have a impact on academic performance. The experiment that was conducted was focused on 20 students, ten that were freshman and ten that were sophomores, that were divided into two groups based on their respective GPA’s. Based on their GPA, they were either classified as successful students( GOA of 3.5 or above) or unsuccessful students( GPA below 3.5). During this experiment, time spent studying on a daily basis , time spent looking for lost notes, how often the students were able to study without being interrupted, and the time period did students begin working on the given assignments. The data that was collected was based from surveys that the students were asked to complete.

For the comparison of time spent studying daily, there is noticeable difference seen between the two groups. for the unsuccessful students, it was reported that approximately 40 percent of them only studied for exams, while only about 30 percent of successful student studied for exams. When it came to studying for 1-2 hours daily, it was only seen that successful student that did this, but comparatively it was only those students that were in the unsuccessful student group that would study for more than 3 hours a day.


The next field that surveyed was how much time that students spent looking for either lost notes or papers. Given the fields never, rarely, sometimes, or always, it was seen that approximately 40 percent of the successful students never had to look for lost notes or papers, compared to the approximate 10 percent of unsuccessful students answered that they would never look for lost papers or notes. However, the unsuccessful student were the only group that answered that they were always looking for lost papers or notes, in this case about 30 percent of the unsuccessful students.


Another field that that was surveyed was how often these groups of students were able to study without being interrupted. When it came to the categories of never interrupted, rarely interrupted, and sometimes interrupted, the unsuccessful students  had a constant of about 30 percent. However when it came to the successful students, they were the only group that responded that they were not always being interrupted, while 10 percent of the unsuccessful students responded that they were always being interrupted.


The final subject that the two groups were surveyed on was when the students would begin working on assignments given to them.  10 percent of the unsuccessful students answered that they would begin given assignments as soon as the class was finished, However, the majority of successful students (90 percent) reported that they would begin an assignment just before the assignment  dead line. One thing that was noticed in this survey category was that 10 percent of the unsuccessful students answered that they began working on a given assignment after the deadline had passed.


Its’ from the data that we can see a pattern that can determine if a student would be either successful or unsuccessful. Unsuccessful students would spend more than three hours a day studying, be more at risk of always being interrupted while studying, spend more time looking for lost notes or papers, where as successful student spend about 30 minutes to up to 2 hours studying, and are not always being interrupted  while studying.

(All pictures are found  here)


Faisal Z. Miqdadi, Abdulla F. ALMomani, Mohammad T. (Shadid Masharqa), and Nabil M. Elmousel The Relationship between Time Management and the Academic Performance of Students from the Petroleum Institute in Abu Dhabi, the UAE. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Relationship between Time Management and the Academic Performance of Students from the Petroleum Institute in Abu Dhabi, the UAE. Retreived from

Can listening to music help your memory?

When walking the popular study areas of the campus, you can see students listening to music while studying for upcoming tests and exams and tests. But does listening to music actually help your cognitive memory.

According to a study that was carried out by William R Bach, Kelly Bowman and Lauri A. Mohler, listening to slow jazz is able to improve the amount of words that had to be recalled during the three experiments that were performed. During the first experiment, the only variables that were considered in the experiment were that pace of the music and the type of music that was played. In this case, only  jazz and classical music were played , and the only differences between these variables where the tempo of the music, in this case whether the music was played fast or slow. In the second experiment, the majority of the first experiment was followed however, the introduction of a different form of the music that was played. It was found in the second experiment that since the form (genre) of music was changed from what was originally listened to while the test subjects were studying, there was a decrease of 9 percent in words that were recalled. In the third and final experiment, only jazz was observed as the music type that was played, along with the observed conditions being the tempo of the music that was played (whether it was fast or slow jazz). Ultimately, from comparing the results from the first experiment and the third experiment proved too little of a change, with the immediate word recall of slow jazz having a median of 14.0 words that were recalled with a standard deviation of 3.6 word correctly recalled, compared to the results from the third experiment in which for slow jazz on the same cue having a median of 13.8 words correctly recalled and having a standard deviation of 3.8. With the delayed recall of slow jazz music, the results from experiment 1 gave a median of 5.8 word correctly recalled with a standard deviation of 2.3 words correctly recalled, compared to experiment 3 where for the delayed recalled gave a result of a median of 5.2 words correctly recalled. Similar results can be seen in the results of the fast played jazz music, whether it was in in the immediate recall or the delayed recall experiment sections. However, on thing that I did notice about this experiment was that there was no control test that was conducted to see the average word recall without any music being played, either while the participants were studying the words or during the experiment.

Information about this experiment can be found herestudying-jpeg-900x600

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But how does listening to music affect test performance though? In another study that was conducted by Laurel Harmon, Kristen Troester, Taryn Pickwick, and Giovanna Pelosi, their results also point that music does not really affect how well you study. Their experiment was based around the idea of the “Mozart effect”, an idea that suggests that listening to classical music helps set the individual in a manner that is easier to absorb information.  In the first experiment , the tested how the test performance of 54 students that were divided into three groups, those that listened to Mozart, those that had listen to Billy Joel, and one group that did not listen to music while studying for the test. For the first experiment, it was hypothesized that those that had listened to Mozart would have scored higher than those that had listen to those that had either listened to the Billy Joel music or those that didn’t listen to any music while studying. The results from the first experiment showed that there was no significant difference that was found between the groups. For the second experiment, the participants were again divided into three groups, those that would listened to classical music, those that would listen to rock, and a group that would not listen to any music . For this experiment, the participants were given up to ten minutes to read a one page excerpt from a book and then given questions to answer about the except that they had read. The data that was collected did not support the hypothesis as the test scores did not show a significant difference in test score between the three test groups.  ( The study The Effects of Different Types of Music on Cognitive Abilities found here)


Picture from HTTP://

So does listening to help study and memory performance. From these two studies it would seem that listening to music while studying or having to memorize something doesn’t help. However, it may be up to personal preference that people listen to music while studying, or that it helps block auditory distractions.


Balch, W. R., Bowman, K., & Mohler, L. A. (n.d.). Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall. Retrieved from

Harmon, L., Troester, K., Pickwick, T., & Pelosi, G. (n.d.). The Effects of Different Types of Music on Cognitive Abilities. Retrieved from


To be or not to be, a morning person that is

I myself use to have the problem of wanting to get up in the morning, always wanting to catch a few extra z’s before heading off to school. This wasn’t always so, as in the military, you are required to wake up early for various reasons. However, waking up early can be beneficial in many ways.

i-am-not-an-early-bird-or-a-night-owl-2823526 One way that waking up early can be beneficial to your work productivity. In 2010, Biologist Christoph Randler conducted a study which measured the productivity of a group of 367 students, he came to the conclusion that mornings people are more able to become productive. A few variable that come form this are that more sleep is able to be obtained, as well as having more time to complete  work ( Morning People Are Productive people, Docuslide).

Another benefit to being an early bird is the possibility of having better grades. According to WebMD, a study that was carried out by Dr. Daniel Taylor at the University of North Texas, found that that people who were considered early birds had a higher gpa than those that were not early birds ( Early Birds Get Better Grades, WebMD). Again a few factors or variables can be seen here as well, such as the possibility that since there are fewer distractions in the morning than in the evening, a person can be more focused on what is required to get done.

Overall , while the choice of waking early is a personal choice, I can say that it works for me because I have made it part of my routine. obviously when anyone tries to become a morning person, it will be difficult, but It is very much worth it once you are accustomed to it.



Early bird is the word. (n.d.). , from
Early Birds Get Better Grades. (n.d.). , from

Is it worth the risk? The subject of plasma donations.

If you haven’t heard about this get cash quick method before, then let me tell you now. The Red Cross organization will pay you to not donate blood, but to give them blood plasma. It is a popular method for many college students to get some extra cash, while not affecting their busy schedules. According to Octapharma plasma, the Food and drug administration allows you to donate twice every seven days, given there are at least two days between the initial donation day. Of course with anything like this, there are short term side-effects such as dizziness, or nausea. But what are the long term effects that we here about and are they really worth it. Before we continue we have to talk about what plasma is first.

According to the University of Rochester Medical Center, plasma is a light yellow fluid that makes up 55 percent of blood content. It serves as the medium that helps move hormones, enzymes, salts and nutrients, along with red and white blood cells through the circulatory system ( University of Rochester Medical Center Health Encyclopedia, What is Plasma).Donating plasma is similar to donating blood, except instead of collecting both red blood cells and plasma, the plasma is filtered using a machine called a cell separator through a process called plasmapheresis. After the blood and plasma are separated, the blood is returned to the body, while plasma  is collected.

HARBURG, GERMANY - JUNE 08: A man donates blood plasma at the blood donation service Hamburg on June 8, 2011 in Harburg, Germany. Hospitals and the Red Cross in northern Germany have appealed to the public for blood donations as a result of the current outbreak of enterohemorrhagic E. coli, also known as the EHEC bacteria. With at least 2,200 people afflicted by the infection, and approximately 500 suffering from the HUS complication from EHEC that attacks the kidneys, hospitals have seen an explosive growth in their need for donated blood plasma. The EHEC outbreak has thus far killed at least 22 people in Europe's deadliest recorded outbreak of E. coli. (Photo by Joern Pollex/Getty Images)

So what are the long term problems of donating plasma? The first long term risk that you face from donating plasma is that you face more of a chance of getting sick due to lower immunoglobulin levels. According to the Asia-Pacific Economics blog, it can be sen that there is a 10 percent reduction in the antibodies that prevent illness from occurring. To me, as a college student this would put me off the idea is mainly because of this reason. Over time, we generally more and more able to become sick, which means more class that we would have to miss because of being sick. Other issues that are involved with plasma donations include increases scaring of the veins, and increased chances of a vein collapsing.

These are some of the things that have to be considered when thinking about donating plasma. While it is for a good cause, you should never let money be a higher priority than you health.


Dangers of Donating Plasma | HRFnd. (n.d.)., from
Plasmapheresis with hemodialysis equipment – UpToDate. (n.d.). , from
Pros and Cons of Donating Plasma | (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2016, from
What Is Plasma? | Univeristy of Rochester Medical Center. (n.d.)., from

How technology has made us more dumb.

I will admit that this may not pertain to everyone, but I was born in a time before technology was seen as a necessity. I remember when I was younger that I would have to remember important phone numbers, and when I had to write a paper I had to learn how to correctly spell a word. And if you didn’t know how to spell it, then you had to use  a dictionary to make sure that you did spell the word.  But now with advancements that we have in technology today,  we never have to worry about how to spell certain word or remember a person’s birthday.

homer_remembering     According to a survey that was performed by Kapersky Labs, out of the 6000 people that were included in the study, 49 percent could not remember their parents phone number, 57 percent could not remember the number to their workplace. What is worse is that about 71 percent of the surveyed group were parents that could not remember their children’s phone numbers from memory. ( ,How modern technology can negatively impact human memory skills)    With the acceptance of smart technology, it can be said that we have pushed off memorizing certain things and having our cellphones and computers to details.

Another study that performed by the the Daniel Wegner, Betsy Sparrow, and Jenny Lui found out that while time spent trying to find correct information may be shortened because of the use of internet explorer’s, however when subjects were asked to recall certain facts about the information, those that used internet explorer’s/browsers were not able to recall as much information those that didn’t use browsers (Harvard Magazine, How the Web Affects our Memory). Wegner first based his hypothesis off of  his original view of transitive memory, where we look at another form or medium to store information. Usually transitive memory occurs with groups of people, like when a child asks a mother when a certain person’s birthday is, or when you ask a classmate when a paper is due. However, since the addition of smart technology and the expanded capabilities of the internet, we are now more reliant on these digital forms of memory, and ultimately affecting our own memory retention capabilities. Hopefully this study shows us how important it is to naturally memorize important details, as well as not to become so dependent on technology.


Google Effects on Memory: Cognitive Consequences of Having … (n.d.). 2016, from
How modern technology can negatively impact … – (n.d.). from
How the Web Affects Memory | Thingser. (n.d.). , from

The Truth about Addiction, are we treating it wrongly

Having Lived in Pennsylvania for a little over two years, it can be seen by many, not just myself that the level of drug addiction has skyrocketed in the state let alone the country. According the the Pennsylvania Coroners Association, there were approximately 1946 drug related deaths in 2010, where as in 2014, 2489 people had drug related deaths  (Malawskey,Mapping Pennsylvania’s Worsening Heroin Crisis) . As it can be possibly foreseen, the number of drug users to to increase. With the increase of drug addicts, we see a change in in our neighborhoods , where flourishing towns become havens of drug activity, and taking with it the innocent lives that ae affected. It can be fairly said that we are taught that people become addicted to drugs because of their chemical nature and properties, but should we treat addiction the same way.


During the, 20th century, experiments on drug addiction were tested via the use of lab rats in a closed environment. A rat would be placed in a cage and was given two drinking apparatuses to choose from, one containing normal water, the other containing water laced with drugs such as cocaine or heroin. In these experiments, it was generally seen that the rat  would choose the laced water , and would continue to consume the laced water until it would die. However, in 1981, the results of a study made by a psychologist named Bruce. K Alexander saw that there was a possibility of a compounding variable. Like humans, rats are also social animals that can be affected by social displacement. Alexander then created a new setting in which to test his hypothesis. Instead of placing the rats in a metal cage, he created what is now known as Rat park, a haven for rats that allowed the rats to play, mate, and interact with other rats. With the change in environment, placed two bottles in Rat park, one that was laced with a drug and one that had normal water in it. With the change of environment, Alexander also placed eight male and eight male and eight females in single cages, while placing 8 male and 8 female rats into Rat park, to create a fair sized social group for the rats as well as having a group that could be compared.   While he did observe that the rats would sometimes use the laced water, the rats in Rat park would rather prefer the consumption of the non-drug laced water. ( BRUCE K. ALEXANDER, BARRY L. BEYERSTEIN, PATRICIA F. HADAWAY AND ROBERT B. COAMBS, Effect of Early and Later Colony Housing on Oral Ingestion of Morphine in Rats).

With this experiment in mind, how can we apply it to drug treatment for addiction today. One of the many methods used for drug rehabilitation is rapid detoxification, which uses drug to sedate a person while they go through withdrawal symptoms . While it be seen as a quick fix comapred to in-patient therapy, which can last from 6 to 12 months, however, with the rapid detox, there are issues of relapse. My high school drug education teacher told us that her family had to enter her sister in a inpatient treatment program because of ow many times her sister had relapsed. Our teacher had explained that since her sister’s body did not go through the pain caused by withdrawal,  her sister would constantly relapse. With inpatient treatment, people will stay at a secluded location that offers a addict that chance to become sober while having a socially positive enviroment.  In-patient treatment can be seen as more successful in a few cases because it offers a change of environment for those that are , similar to to how Bruce Alexander created a change in the environments for the rats.

While, the subject of of what addiction truly is may be interpreted in many ways,  I hope that this blog opens the thought on how drug addiction rehabilitation treatment can be changed as well as change the views as to what addiction can be viewed as.



“Choosing Inpatient Rehab vs. Outpatient Rehabilitation.” Choosing Inpatient Rehab vs. Outpatient Rehabilitation. N.p., n.d.

“Effect of Early and Later Colony Housing on Oral Ingestion of Morphine in Rats”, BRUCE K. ALEXANDER, BARRY L. BEYERSTEIN, PATRICIA F. HADAWAY AND ROBERT B. COAMBS ,  December 5, 1980

Malawskey, Nick. “Mapping Pennsylvania’s Worsening Heroin Crisis.” N.p., 2016. .

“Opiate Detox and Detoxification.” Opiate Detox and Detoxification. N.p., n.d. .

“Rat Park.” Addiction: The View from (2010). N.p., n.d. .

“Report on Overdose Death Statistics 2014”, Pennsylvania State Coroners Association,



Penn State takes the lead on new 3d printing material


When 3d printing was first introduced to the public, it was most likely seen to only be able to create cool crafts that you personally can create. However, as time passed we have seen new applications, as well as new potential uses in different field.artificialear

Recently, Penn State was able to revolutionize the medical application of 3d printing by creating a new material that will possibly replace old methods of print cartilage. The new polymer that the team of engineers had used is is artificial in nature, but closely resembles cartilage that would come from cows. This new polymer, known as Bioink, is better than the Hydrogel polymer that was used previously to print cartilage for a few reasons. First, the Bioink polymer allows the cells to grow and become naturalized in the human body. The problem that Hydrogels had in this area was while it gave the cartilage cells a base to build off of, however it would interrupt the body’s communication to the new cartilage, ultimately inhibiting the acceptance of the new cartilage to the body.  The second reason why the Bioink does better than that of Hydrogels is that it is safer for use in a person’s body. Hydrogel’s are a combination of polymer material and water, which makes up 90 percent of it. However, as Hydrogels break down, it has the potential of producing a toxin that can have negative effects on cellular growth. But with Bioink, this problem doesn’t exist, but it lacks the structural integrity that Hydrogelsgel’s have to offer. It can be seen that  with this material, is can be possible to one day be able to print new cartilaginous material that will completely mimic the person in needs dna and not have to worry about rejection or possibly developing cellular difficulties.

Messer, B. A. (n.d.). 3D printing produces cartilage from strands of bioink | Penn State University. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from

Roads to solar energy


A new idea has been in the process, and it may be coming to the near future. According to the American Road and Transportation Builders Association, the United States is covered by approximately 4.12 million miles of roads (The American Road & Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA), 2016). But what else are these roads good for besides being used for traveling, they don’t harvest energy and the are usually faulted by potholes. however that may not be the case as they may be replaced with solar energy harvesting panels.  For years, energy used to be reliant on fossil fuels, which can include petroleum, gas, and coal, as well as using nuclear energy. These different  types of fuels were once the only fuels that could be used to create electrical energy. However, with these new panels, renewable energy may become more prominent in the future.

But how do these panels work though and how will they change the way that we travel? the company that created  the concept for solar roadways, Solar Roadways,  founded in 2006, introduced this idea on IndieGoGo in 2014, which immediately took off. These solar roadways are constructed from customizable panels that are integrated with a solar panels and energy cells to collect and store solar energy when needed. When the panels are used, the collect solar energy, and can pass the energy that the collect from one panel to another , ultimately being able to be collected and turned into clean electrical energy. Like a giant circuit electrical energy collected can provide energy to nearby homes and connected navigation signs and lamp posts.  These panels also have other capabilities than just being able to to collect and store solar energy. These panels are also equipped with multi colored leds which can be used to designate lanes, create cross that can display when and when to cross, and parking spaces to make a easy and customizable parking lot. Not only that, but these panels are self heating, meaning that there is now a lower chance of car accidents happening from icy roads. To increase traction and further reduce the chance of an accident, these panels are textured to improve tire traction.

With all of these bonuses of using these specialized solar panels, one would ask why are we not using these right now. Well, currently these panels are still in the testing phases as of right now, but Solar Roadways has won quite a few contracts including one from 2015 that was worth $750,000 to be used to perform better research to make these panels stronger and more durable.

Sources :

R & D – SolarRoadways. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from

Solar Roadways IndieGoGo page here



With the new arrival of popularized Smart drugs and brain pills, a lot of controversy about these products are affecting more than just the consumer, but also those that follow the eSports scene. With promises of improving brain performance, such as sharpening memory and improving cognitive function. Although there is not a any kind of pill that can make this happen in one dose, however a new class of brain performance drugs called nootropics exist.

Nootropics are different from many drugs that were previously used ( sometimes abused) for boosting brain performance for a few reasons. First , many nootropics are not officially considered drugs, which would need a prescription from a doctor, but in stead are considered supplements. Being considered as supplements, these pills do not have to follow FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) guidelines. Another reason that these nootropics are different from many prescription drugs available, such as Ritalin and Adderal, is because of dosage requirements and possible addiction . With prescription drugs, over time a user will become tolerant of the dosage that that is prescribed, requiring that the person using the medication to make a scheduled appointment and get the doctors approval for increasing the dosage needed for the drug to work, many. However, with nootropics there is no dosage guidelines that would be used to evaluate what amount of drug or supplement a single person would need, let alone how much a single person should take that would either be considered safe or harmful. With this being said, it is also seen that with prescription medications, addiction to the chemicals in prescription medications occurs. However, because of FDA regulations with prescription drugs, the knowledge of whether these medications have possibilities for long term addiction and health issues are known. Without these regulations , nootropics are left to chance whether they will help  you or accidentally put you in the hospital, these new supplements are creating a new controversy around the competitive gaming industry.

Just like with normal sports played today, where drug use  for boosting performance is in most cases deemed illegal, competitive gaming is also seeing this issue arise. Competitive gaming, also know as eSports, is a competitive area where instead of performing feats of physical excellence, teams of people will compete over  a digital medium to become number one. But just like normal sports, eSports have followed suit to make sure everyone is playing fairly. Competitors have to undergo drug screening to prevent the use of known drugs that can affect a players performance. However, with the notice that nootropics are making their way onto the eSport scene and are not FDA regulated, is there a legal way now to improve a players performance?  While many participants at eSport events may admit to drinking an energy drink or two, what is to say that this is not cheating in some form or fashion?


Sources of informtaion:
Burks, Z. (2016, April 25). E-Sports and Smart Drugs | How Gamers Are Unlocking Their Brain. Retrieved September 11, 2016, from

For An Unfair Advantage Professional Gamers Are Cheating With Smart Drugs. (n.d.). Retrieved September 11, 2016, from
Tinoco, B. M. (2016). Are You a Cheater If You’re Using Smart Drugs to Get Ahead? | VICE | United States. Retrieved September 11, 2016, from

A different type of science

Hello, my name is Nathan Morningstar and I am a Junior even though this is my fourth semester  attending Penn State. I am majoring in Security Risk analysis and minoring in information system technologies and following the cyber security path. During my time in high school, I was very intrigued by the many different science courses my school had to offer, including those of marine biology and oceanography due to my interest  to become a Marine Biologist. However, after my first deployment while serving active duty in the United States Marine Corps, I realized that my interest in computer sciences was my true interest. From there on, I began reading books and learning about cyber security  and information systems technologies. That is why I am not planning on becoming a science major     funny-picture-adam-savage-science                                                        Link for picture found here

I am taking SC200 for two reason’s, one because this is a different way of viewing science in general, and the second being that one of my best friends and roommates is in this class which definitely helps because if either one of us were to for some reason not make it to class, we would have each other covered. Surprisingly , I had always done very well, when it came to to anything math or science related. However when I heard that this didn’t involve much math or absurd formulas but instead required more research and open thought, i thought that this would be a interesting class.

While I am not planning on becoming a Science major, however i do like discussing about things that are science related or reading news articles that pertain to new discoveries or thoughts about scientific fields. However, one question that i had thought about came after learning that scientists were trying to recreate the big bang ( no not the TV show) was what would happen if these scientists were to successfully recreate the big bang. What would happen? would they be able to contain it or prevent the ultimate destruction of the world?  Link to information pertaining to the first successful attempt/ recreation of the big bang found here, and link to Stephen Hawking’s warning about recreating the big bang found here .