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Why is Netflix addicting? Continued…


A couple of years ago when Netflix started to move its way into the entertainment spotlight, I have to say I never got sucked into the whole craze. Until now. All people talk about now  is binge watching TV shows and watching shows they never even would if there wasn’t such a convenient way to stream shows like Netflix does.  I honestly never thought I would get involved either but of course I did. My friend gave me his Netflix account about a month ago and I have never been this unproductive before. Of course this new obsession is timed perfectly at a point where blogs are due, tests are posted, and assignments are at there peak. I figured that even though everyone writes about this topic, there is still information that intrigues us and data that proves why we are all so addicted to the same thing. So here is a breakdown of why Netflix is such a monster to our daily lives due to its addicting traits, as described by


Why is it so addicting?:

You may have thought that Netflix uses color schemes, show watching convenience, or variety of shows to increase how addictive their concept is, as described in a recent article concerning Netflix’s addictiveness.  Those may be somewhat true but there is an even bigger reason why. Netflix has cracked one of the biggest marketing breakthroughs in entertainment history. The company has honed in sorting through the shows that are the most watchable and has figured out the exact moment people get addicted to a certain program. By figuring out the exact moment viewers are addicted to the show, the company can focus on which shows and moments they present to the user. Netflix uses data taken from users account information and viewing history to build a sort of viewer resume that effects when they get addicted that specific show. discusses this breakthrough as a sort of phenomenon is such an industry. For years people have wondered why they are addicted to this TV watching method, but know that they know they are addicted at exactly a certain moment, there is no stopping the addiction besides from not watching at all.  Another hypothesis for why people are so addicted to Netflix is the theory that people are consumed in reaching a goal when they are engaged in that certain activity. In terms of TV, people generally become very consumed in that such activity, therefore becoming totally committed to that goal. This proves to be a source of addiction through data in the numbers of viewers being engaged in their program, which again was collected when looking at user data that is explained on The Null Hypothesis of this situation is that when people are engaged in a certain activity, in this situation their TV program, they are more likely to finish that show and becoming addicted and watch the next, so on and so forth. The Alternate Hypothesis is that when someone loses interest in something, or doesn’t get involved, AKA not having Netflix, they will not become engaged in a goal, or become addicted to that activity.



Netflix is something that most of us view as a problem. This problem is generated due to our addiction to the process of watching TV over and over as a result of factors such as accessibility, goal-commitment, and timing.





Can an apple a day keep the doctor away?


In today’s society, the world seems to be on somewhat of a health kick. Scientists and doctors all around are finding that people are carrying out new habits to be healthy and exploring why it is so necessary for our health to do so.  People are starting to realize that treating our bodies with healthy foods and diets can benefit us in the long run. One extremely common myth that supports this concept is the, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away myth”. The old saying is simply enough based on the theory that by eating an apple each day, can alone prevent having to visit the doctor ever. There are plenty of data out there to prove why this is true but there is more to it than just saying it is true right off the bat.


Background of the phrase:

The forbidden fruit, as refereed to in pieces of writing that date back as far as the bible, has for many centuries been looked at by people as the foundation of a healthy lifestyle and has been the origin of phrases such us the one we are discussing. But why? What qualities could this fruit have to produce so much talk and myth. In ancient cultures, it was discovered that the apple contained many healthful properties by observing peoples health through eating the fruit. The fruit was considered so healthy, or different than other foods, that it was considered a medicine for quite some time, originally in Southeast Asian cultures. As the fruit made its way across the world it was made certain that it was a superfood. In Wales, around 1860, the first phrases related to the fruits super powers were quoted. Caroline Taggert, author of, “An Apple a Day: Old Fashioned Proverbs and Why they Still Work” which is mentioned in The Washington Post in an article concerning the matter, states that the first recordings of such phrase was by Pembrokeshire of Wales and came in the form of, ‘‘Eat an apple on going to bed, and you’ll keep the doctor from earning his bread.” This original quote formed into what we know today as the old proverb but we still are left wondering if it really can keep the doctor away and why.


Why are apples healthy?:

It is common knowledge that apples are amongst the healthiest foods you can consume in your daily life. The apple has creeped its way into the spotlight by containing many healthful features and therefore leading to a more healthful life, and in some peoples eyes, saving you a visit from the doctor. By influencing apples into your daily diet, you are helping yourself in multiple ways concerning your health. Apples are said to help flight the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure and many types of cancer, as discussed on The article goes over the common myth and explains using many variables why it is not true. To fight these many health risks, the apple is a fruit, like many others, that contains chemicals such as Pectin, Boron, Quercetin, Vitamin C, and Phytonutrients. Pectin, a form of soluble fiber in apples, is said to lower blood pressure, glucose levels, and bad cholesterol. Boron, Quercetin, Vitamin C, and Phytonutrients, are all forms of nutrients found in apples that help in reducing the risk of certain cancers, heart disease, and asthma. Apples also work as a sort of natural tooth brush in that they reduce tooth decay and killing bacteria. Apples have all these good, healthy qualities, but is it true that an apple a day keeps the doctor away.


An apple alone can keep the doctor away based on data:

In contrast to the myths meaning and theories based around it, a healthy lifestyle is comprised of eating foods and doing activities that don’t just consist of one food or choice. Eating an apple a day is of course considered a good choice based on the scientific proof of the health benefits, and an apple alone can even supply the human body with enough chemicals and nutrients to fight off diseases that require a doctors attention. In a study conducted by the University of Western Australia questioned the myth that an apple a day keeps the doctor away by proposing to hypothesis. The Null Hypothesis being that woman who ate an apple a day, or 100 grams which is equivalent to a smaller apple a day, are likely to have a longer life span with less health issues. The Alternate Hypothesis is that woman who ate less than 5 grams a day or about 15 a year, were said to suffer a shorter life with more problems relating to health. The study tracked 1,456 woman, ages 70 to 85, for 15 years. This study which is featured in an article on is broken down to simplify the purpose of the study and how an consuming apples alone can benefit the human life.The director of the study, Doctor Jonathan Hodgson, gathered liable data from the observational study he conducted by observing the independent variable, the apples, effect on the population. The data proved that the myth is in fact true because the chemicals and nutrients in the apples allow woman to reduce their risk of mortality by up to 35 percent by just eating more apples.



The myth that an apple a day can keep the doctor away, after looking at reasons and data supporting its factuality, can actually be looked at as reverse causation. For example, when people realize that an apple a day can help humans live longer and lower the risk of mortality, they are more likely to start eating more apples daily, which is cause and effect. The study as  whole is eye opening due to the fact that just by consuming more of one certain fruit, can actually single handedly keep the doctor away.


What makes people attractive?


You can be nice and say that you are only interested in an individual if they have a good personality or you have a special connection but lets be real. You are looking for someone who is generally attractive physically. When we try to grasp our brains around that image of attractiveness, qualities run through our heads of what we prefer.  There is a special sort of bracket of attractiveness that our brains all look for. We might say that we prefer blondes over brunettes, or blue eyes over brown eyes. But in reality people tend to focus on what they prefer in their partner and lose sight of qualities that actually decide attractiveness. In reality, there is a more scientific reason to why we find people attractive rather than what we prefer or observe as individuals. The concept of of attractiveness can be broken up between of course physical features but also things that aren’t physical, for example, personality.  The science behind attractiveness is extremely unique and can be proved with factual information that I am about to supply.

Traits that prove to make more people attractive through data sets.

Traits that prove to make more people attractive through data sets.

Definition of attractiveness:

According to, the concept of attractiveness can be described as something or someone that provides a sort of pleasure especially in terms of physical attributes. Attractiveness as a definition and as a concept described by individuals are very far off. Both the definition and what the human brain defines as attractive focus on physical appearance.

Creepy picture that breaks down traits that the brain deems attractive

Creepy picture that breaks down traits that the brain deems attractive

The science of attractiveness and relation to class: 

The first thing we do when we meet a person we have never met nor seen before, without even sometimes noticing, is judging that individual on their attractiveness. It is just and instinct of the human brain. The brain processes the persons physical traits such as facial symmetry, voice, height, posture, and many other characteristics to immediately determine the level of attractiveness.

This video, posted by Brain Signal and used on, explains the science of attractiveness as a whole. It breaks down the reasons why and how people see others as attractive. The process starts as early as when a human is in the womb, where a chemical is released at different stages during pregnancy. The time at which the chemical is released determines traits and levels of attractiveness that the child will obtain as they grow and mature. The video featured on explains the science behind the traits that make people attractive.  It questions the process of which traits are developed to make someone attractive, which as just explained, starts as early as in the womb.

In class we learned in depth, what science means. We observed that science can be described as the want or desire to explain the world like it is through, “testing a hypothesis about what causes certain things.” (A. Read, What is Science?, V. 3.0) Andrew explained that data that is gathered is what is used to support the hypothesis. Even though it might seem obvious, there needs to be enough data to do so and thoroughly give support. In the case of understanding what traits make people attractive, there are studies that do just that.

When looking at the science behind what traits people find appealing, the world of business is one environment that very clearly supports the concept In business it is often thought that people who are in theory, more attractive, generate more sales and or revenue. The Association for Consumer Research defends this hypothesis by gathering data from past studies and observations.  Anne M. Brumbaugh of Duke University who is the coordinator of this study starts by developing the hypothesis as questioning whether there are other factors aside from physically attractive traits that can effect a buyer when presented with an attractive seller. The Null hypothesis of this study would be that there is no relation between people who have traits that the brain deems attractive selling more than people who are not viewed as attractive. The Alternate hypothesis is that the people with traits the brain processes as attractive indeed tend to produce more revenue than those who do not. The conclusion settles on the fact that sellers who are observed with attractive features are more apt to sell and generate more revenue. For examples, the study observes that people with traits such as facial symmetry, blue eyes, higher forward, tall and good stature, and blond hair, which are scientifically proven attractive traits, in fact sell more. This data is just one set that supports the scientific skepticism behind traits that make people attractive.

Universal example of an a person who holds attractive traits. Some being facial symmetry, high forehead, moderate facial hair (for men)

Universal example of an a person who holds attractive traits. Some being facial symmetry, high forehead, moderate facial hair (for men)


Attractiveness as a science is a concept that when explained correctly and supported with data can be understood and accepted. Some people ignore the fact that there are traits that our brains immediately detect when meeting individuals and choose to believe that other factors are responsible for deeming people attractive. But with data and studies, certain physical traits can be understood as attractive features. Many studies have been conducted to support this theory, some more examples being the article and the post on the universal viewpoint and theories behind attractiveness which list traits such as finger length, height, physical stature, posture, hair color, and many other features. As learned from this post using various studies and examples, the term attractiveness can be summed up as a compilation of traits that the brain categorizes as physically appealing due to chemicals and other factors.

Here is one last example of a person with universally viewed attractive qualities.kate-upton













Our Polar bears are going away..

Upon looking for a topic to right about, I came across an article Polar bears dwindling in numbers due to their habitat rapidly disappearing.  I thought I would be cliche and write about climate change but no. I like Polar bears better because they are fluffier and more intriguing than climate change and are in some way connected.



As we all know, Polar bears rely on the ice in polar regions that have an Arctic tundra climate as their main environment.  The bears use the ice to roam, hunt, and live their lives as a whole. While climate change a few years ago wasn’t even a thought, it seems to today that the futures of these bears is not looking to good. Which is very sad. Some studies say that Polar bears home could be ice free my the middle of the century, which you can find here. 

According to The Cryosphere, “The time span between the sea-ice maximum in March and the sea-ice minimum in September has lengthened by up to nine weeks since 1979 when satellite observations began”.  In simpler terms that means our bears a screwed. Absolutely screwed. “THE SEA TO ICE MAXIMUM HAS LENGTHENED BY NINE WEEKS” Ya bye Polar bears. How are Polar bears supposed to live if their habitat is gone? They cannot. That is exactly why climate change is such a big deal. Think about all the wildlife that is on the final string of life do to this drastic change.  Nine weeks longer of having no place live just sounds like something unBEARable. HA.

In conclusion, the habitats of our precious Polar bears is dwindling due to climate change and that is a topic that needs to continue to be addressed in the spotlight of mankind.

Why is the length of the shaft important?

In terms of golf, the length of the shaft of your golf club plays a huge role on your game as a whole. I know I got you hooked with the title but the rest will probably be boring because you either love golf or hate it. I myself like it so much that i made it my major in college. Now I can learn about the importance of long and short shafts! Ya shafts woo.

But seriously, when it comes down to actually trying to improve your game in golf, shaft lengths are extremely important if you want to gain control and distance of your golf shots. For example, long shafts are for giving your golf shot more distance and sending the ball further, where as short shafts result in a shot with less length.  With long shafts, the control of the shot is lowered, but as you shorten the shaft, the control increases. Why is this? As stated here, the shaft is often looked at as, “the engine of the golf club”.  This is because the shaft connects the golfers hands to the club head and drives momentum into the club and transferring energy forward.


Along with length comes flex and weight. These go hand in hand when it comes down to shaft importance.  For stronger players with faster swing speeds, a stronger and longer shaft is needed in order to keep the ball in the fairway. If you are too strong and swinging a club that is too flexible, you are guaranteed to never hit the ball where you want it to go. On the other hand, people with slower speeds need a a shaft with more flexibility or whip, in order to get around on the ball and go straight.

If your having a hard time picturing the ideal shaft and how it works with the golf swing, look here.  Trust me the link will help. Anyway, the science of the ideal shaft is highly dependent on the length, flexibility, and weight and I hope you picked up some knowledge on golf club shafts.



How Important is the Shaft in the Performance of Golf Clubs?

Why do we dream?

I have always been interested in dreams. Why do we dream? How do we dream? Do some people not dream at all? There are so many questions concerning dreams and the process that revolves around doing so. Unfortunately I never really remember my dreams. Or so I think.  I have always been told that everyone dreams but I myself cannot even remember the last dream I had. After some research, it is clear that everyone dreams and that over time, dreaming has been looked at by many different minds and has many different scientific theories behind its purpose.


The study and science behind dreaming dates back to the early Greek and Roman empires who believed that dreams held certain powers.  On a more reasonable term, great minds such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung also had their own views on dreams and the purpose they served.  According to Sigmund Freud, dreaming allows humans to go over and think about goals and or wishes not yet achieved. That might have something to do with why we look at dreams as something we wish to do or accomplish. Carl Jung studied dreams after Freud and believed that dreams were important for our brains but didn’t fully agree with Freud, as stated here.

As our technology increases, there is more and more theories that lean towards the belief that dreams don’t actually hold any significant meaning. In the, “Activation-synthesis hypothesis”, dreams are looked at as only electronic brain impulses that trigger our memory.  Upon waking up, as the theory states, humans are led to pull stories from their memories in order to make sense of it all, therefore resulting in a dream.

The theory and study that seems to most strongly identify dreams as having a purpose in my eyes, is the “threat simulation theory”, which is explained thoroughly on The explanation suggests that even other mammals dream and that dreaming is used as a defense mechanism by repeatedly stimulating and simulating events that threaten the individual, resulting in an evolutionary advantage.


This picture sums up some of the studies conducted about dreams in hopes to find a purpose to why and how we dream.

In conclusion, their have been hundreds of studies and theories revolving dreams and the purpose they serve in human and mammals lives. I hope this post helped enhance your knowledge and interest of dreams at least a little bit.


My major is golf

I’m Rob MacPherson and I’m from Boston, Massachusetts.  Like most of us I am a freshman at Penn state UP and I started in the summer which helped in somewhat getting a feel for college. My major is Professional golf management which is in RPTM.  Coming to Penn state was a shot in the dark for me because I didn’t really know anyone personally that had been here before but all I knew was that they had a golf major which is wicked cool. I heard that I had a class on the golf course and that’s when I sealed the deal. Three credits to play golf. Dope. Then I realized I had to get in to the school which I was sure about since they made me wait half the damn year for a decision. But it worked, so it’s good and now I’m here, in a class of an absurd amount of people  with a professor with a semi cool accent learning about science. The bottom line is I am in this class because back when I was scheduling my classes I was told that this is the one I would least likely fall asleep in. I was down for that considering I wanted to make the most of my parents money goi towards school and not fall asleep in class. The second part of the bottom line is that I don’t want to be a science major not because I don’t like science but because I just don’t think in depth enough most of the time. I don’t always question stuff as much as I should and stop thinking before I get an answer. I hope to change that in this class but that is one reason I probably can’t major in science. If there’s one thing I want to learn about in class it is probably something that’s related to golf just because I want to learn about something that I’m going to need in the long run and I am interested specifically in. That being said here is a live link to a sports science clip,                                            image