Category Archives: Teaching with Technology

Mentoring for Online Instructors

Online learning at Penn State continues to grow. A whopping 42% of our resident students have taken an online course. Predictions are that the number of online students will continue to increase and as a result, we are thinking of how to best help faculty in their transition to online instruction. One tactic is to encourage mentoring of new faculty and last fall the Faculty Engagement subcommittee of the Penn State Online Coordinating Council and the Schreyer Institute piloted an online mentoring program for those new to online teaching ( The intent of this effort is to provide instructional support for those teaching online and to create opportunities for networking with others teaching online.

The online mentoring experience is intended to last a semester and is, first and foremost, a collegial relationship. Through the mentor’s personal guidance, the prot�g� can question and explore online teaching strategies and expectations. Dialogue drives this relationship, but the mentor can also review online course activities and interactions. What is needed and how to go about getting those needs are met is something that is left to the devices of the mentor and prot�g�.

What do you think — would a mentor be helpful to you as you begin teaching online? Or would you like a mentor even though you have taught online? By engaging in a mentoring relationship, you can ask questions, share comments, voice concerns, dissect instructional strategies, and feel connected to someone else who has walked in your shoes.

Ray Schroeder on MOOCs

I recently attended a talk sponsored by Penn State’s new Center for Online Innovation in Learning (COIL) about Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs). The speaker was Ray Schroeder, from the University of Illinois, Springfield. Ray used his website as the anchor for the presentation, taking the audience to several different MOOC providers as well as illustrating the various models employed by MOOC providers like Coursera and Udacity

During Ray’s talk, a few interesting thoughts came to mind. Ray started out by discussing the promise of MOOCs. Essentially, the MOOC model might be a way to deliver educational content an an affordable price, of high quality, and accessible anywhere with an Internet connection. He talked about traditional models, and how most traditional models can only get two of these three criteria right. One example is that a student can likely take an online course anywhere with an Internet connection that is high in quality, but likely not very affordable. This reminds me of the triple constraint, a project management concept that deals with a project’s timeline, cost and scope. From a project management standpoint, it’s very challenging to manage a project that’s completed quickly (timeline), cheap in cost and large in scope. 
Schroeder emphasized that the current trend of rising tuition coupled with the decline in average family income is simply not a sustainable model for higher education. Will MOOCs play a role in defraying the cost of higher education? Possibly. Another interesting anecdoate Ray shared dealt with a recent visit to the Gate’s foundation. Most academics in attendance, when asked what employers look for in graduates, cited things like critical thinking and problem solving. They then had a panel with HR representatives at large, United States-based companies talking about what they are seeking from recent college graduates. These companies cited very specific skillsets, such as accounting, java programming, .NET programming and so on. Again, Schroeder theorized that MOOCs might help play a role in helping some of the country’s largest companies find skilled employs to fill many of these skill-based jobs. 
COIL plans on hosting more guest speakers in the spring and I look forward to continued engaging discussions around various online learning topics and how they might apply to Penn State.

Reflecting on Wesch’s Wonder and Big Questions

Consultants at the Schreyer Institute have just returned from the annual conference of the Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education (POD). One of the speakers at the event was Michael Wesch. He teaches cultural anthropology at Kansas State University where he studies social media and its effects on society. Dr. Wesch may be familiar…His class’s YouTube video called A Vision of Students Today went viral several years ago.  His talk at this year’s POD conference was one of the most inspiring and hopeful messages I’ve heard in a long while. He talked about our need to instill ‘wonder’ in the ‘Age of Whatever.’ The talk didn’t begin with optimism, but it ended that way.

There were two parts of his message that I think have important implications for faculty in higher education (not to mention for teachers, parents, mentors, etc. everywhere). The first is that we must give students what Wesch called ‘the gift of big questions.’ It’s true that students ask the small ones…Will this information be on the test? How long does the paper have to be? But our job is to get them thinking about the BIG questions, the ones that inspire a quest for knowledge, understanding, and application. The small questions don’t change the world, but the big questions can.

The second big message for me was related to the first but focused more on technology. If we inspire wonder and big questions, then technology becomes an invaluable tool for communicating, information seeking, information sharing, and problem-solving. If we fail in this regard, then technology is essentially just distraction. (Interestingly, the other plenary speaker at the conference was Alex Soojung-Kim Pang who spoke about the Distraction Addiction. His book by this title is due out next year.) When wonder and big questions drive social media interaction then Facebook, for example, becomes a means of social change, not a distraction from learning.

This is not rocket science. It’s not new information. But Wesch’s was a poignant–and for those of us in the room, graphic–reminder of what’s at stake and why it’s important. It was also a hopeful message, if we can inspire in our students a sense of wonder by giving them the gift of big questions, then their thinking and their engagement with technology find purpose. 

Success with Course Videos

Chuck Ghilani teaches courses in surveying engineering at Penn State Wilkes-Barre. A few years back, a publisher asked him to produce some videos to accompany a textbook he had written. Realizing that these videos could aid his students, he started developing videos of his class notes. The following semester, he and colleague Thomas Seybert piloted the videos in their own classes; when students’ exam scores increased compared with those from the previous year, Chuck knew he was onto something powerful.

Since then, he’s produced about 140 videos, typically about 15 minutes long. In each video, he animates PowerPoint slides so students can revisit lecture material whenever they find the need. All the while, he’s providing narration that explains the concepts. “This allows students to go back when doing homework,” Chuck says. “Student satisfaction went up, as well as their understanding of the topic. And they’re doing it on their own, in a format they’re very familiar with.” (See one of the videos by clicking here.)

In addition, he reports in a paper co-written with Thomas Seybert that students continue coming to class–it seems they’re using the videos mainly to review unclear concepts. His latest videos involve information on how to use the software and hardware to perform a GNSS survey in the practical field exercises. Students can access these short videos (less than 5 minutes) using their smartphones via a QR code. This allows the students to get help from Chuck even when he’s on the other side of his 52-acre campus.

In the two years since Chuck started making videos, his process has evolved. Early on, when trying to edit out mistakes, he got good at editing out single words. Then he realized it was easier to redo a sentence rather than a single word. Now he redoes the entire narrative for a slide if he’s unhappy with the results. (He uses the software Camtasia Studio for the recording and editing.)

Making good course videos requires a large time commitment, but remember that every Penn State location has a Media Commons installation where faculty can get support in making quality digital products. If you’re interested, start out small, with a single video….

Educause Learning Initiative 2012 Recap – Blended Learning

I had the opportunity to attend the annual Educause Learning Initiative (ELI) conference this February in Austin, TX. I came away from the conference re-energized and excited to move forward in two different spaces:

  • Blended learning
  • Learning Analytics (more on this in a future post!)

As the Institute continues to explore our role in online and blended learning, this year’s ELI contained two fantastic sessions, one from Northwestern College and one from the University of Central Florida, on approaches to blended learning. I especially feel good about the conference take aways, things I can apply here at PSU immediately upon return. Both of these presenters provided just that.

University of Central Florida

UCF was well represented at ELI this year, with a wide variety of interesting presentations from UCF personnel. One specific presentation contained a wealth of resources designed to help faculty get started with blended learning. Kudos to UCF for making the resources all Creative Commons licensed, allowing other institutions to leverage them.

The primary resource is the Blended Learning Toolkit. It would take too long to review each section of the site, but I’d like to point out a couple very good resources.

  • Working through the BlendKit – This is a professional development course offered to UCF faculty, but it’s designed so anyone can take advantage of it. You can complete the course on your own in its entirety, or pick-and-choose elements of the course to complete for your own development.
  • Teaching Online Pedagogical Repository – This is a vast collection of resources, submitted by a wide variety of people, into a large wiki repository. The level of detail is fantastic, as each entry typically has both a synopsis and description of a pedagogical strategy, but also links to resources, examples and citations.

Northwest College
Northwest College presented on a blended learning program they implemented to help faculty take face-to-face courses, and migrate them to a blended model. I specifically enjoyed this presentation because it both applies to efforts taking place in the Institute around online learning and the presenters provided a set of fantastic resources for others to use. The entire project has a
website full of resources. A few resources that I find particularly useful:

  • Radio James – This is an online objective builder tool, allowing faculty to build objectives in an interactive format, following Bloom’s taxonomy.
  • Top Ten Tech Tools – A great list, short and articulate.
  • Workshop Documents – samples of documents the Northwest team used in their 2-week faculty workshop series to help faculty redesign their course. I particularly link the checklist.

The two primary ‘hub’ websites for both of these initiatives are flooded with resources. I highly recommend exploring the sites if you’re working with faculty, or if you are a faculty member, designing a blended or online course.

Flipped Classroom

I learned a little bit about the Flipped Classroom when I was working on the Lecture Capture Research Starter Kit. This morning when I was surfing the Web, a blog, Flipping out? What you need to know about the Flipped Classroom, written by Andrea Zellner caught my eye. After reading and browsing more articles and websites about the Flipped Classroom, I feel this is something worth trying and using in the class.

We know that too much teacher-talk is not good for students’ learning and usually make students feel bored and this is why I really like the idea of flipping the whole classroom and homework – Delivering online lectures that students can access outside of class (e.g. home) and moving homework into the classroom. Instead of giving an hours-long lecture in the classroom and making students be passive listeners and learners, the instructor interact with students more and have personalized contact time to facilitate students’ learning based on their specific needs. Because students have watched lectures outside of class at their own pace, they go to class with basic concepts and questions. Students can ask questions and/or involve in discussion to get clarification and be ready to participate in classroom activities to apply what they learned from the online lectures to cases.

Some people concern about the impact of online lectures on students’ attendance, some people think the Flipped Classroom can only be used in limited disciplines, and some people worry that students may not watch online lectures before the class. However, several studies found that the availability of online lectures did not impact on students’ attendance and many students reported that interaction with the instructor and classmates helps their learning. Also, many experienced Flipped Classroom teachers from a variety of disciplines, such as sciences, math, history, and arts, have shared their successful experiences. In addition, we need to remember that students’ learning is not only the instructor’s task, but also the students’ responsibility, so we should help students learn to take their own responsibility of learning.


For more information about Flipped Classroom, here are the article and a website:

Flipping out? What you need to know about the Flipped Classroom

The Flipped Class Network

Changing the way we educate ourselves with online learning

Higher education is changing.  Universities and Colleges used to be the gatekeepers for information and learning but the key has seemed to slip from our fingers.  

Free education is often undervalued and almost universally unaccredited, perhaps because when evaluating education expense is often the indicator of quality. The more that something is offered for free, the less it is seen as a signal for quality.  However a simple scatter-plot comparing University ranking with tuition cost quickly shows us that the correlation between cost and quality is weak overall.

MITx is changing the face of online education and accredited learning but it is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to online learning resources.  Following is a list of over 200 web resources that are publicly available, many from Higher Education institutions.  While some of these learning websites may not engage in the most rigorous online learning pedagogy neither do many Higher Education institutions.

Table of Contents:

I. Top Picks
II. Universities and Higher Education
III. General Collections 
IV. How-to & DIY
V. Studying with Peers
VI. Online Books, eBooks, & Journals
VII. Computers, Software, & Programming
VIII. Science & Math
IX. Logic, Words, & Memory
X. Languages
XI. Music (updated to v.1.2 on 1/26/12)
XII. History
XIII. Business, Economics, Finance, & Investing 
XIV. Food, Nutrition, & Cooking
XV. Survival Tips
XVI. Documentaries & Film Studies



Khan Academy

Academic Earth – Online courses from the world’s top scholars

TED – Technology, Entertainment, & Design

MIT Open CourseWare

Stanford Engineering Everywhere

Open Yale Courses

About U. – Collection of free online courses from


YouTube EDU

The Open University – Study at the OU

University of the People

University of Reddit

Open Culture – The best free cultural & educational media on the web

VideoLectures – Exchange ideas & share knowledge

CosmoLearning – Free educational website with thousands of courses & documentaries



Lecture Fox – Free university lectures

Faculty Project – The best professors from the world’s leading Universities

More Open Courses:

OCW Search – Find free university courses online

Open Courseware Consortium

Harvard Extension School – Computer Science & Technology

Johns Hopkins University

Kaplan University

Notre Dame

Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study


Utah State

Google in Education

ArsDigita University – Computer science and math lectures

UC Berkeley Webcast – Central service for online video & audio for learners around the globe

UC Berkeley Video Courses – Free education online

Capilano University

Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative

Delft University of Technology

Rice University Connexions – A place to view and share educational modules

Stanford on iTunes U – Stanford-related digital audio content

UC Irvine

UC San Diego Podcasts

University of Chicago’s Mind Online – Thought-provoking samples of critical thinking & debate

University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

University of Massachusetts

University of Michigan

University of Southern Queensland

University of Sydney – Podcast episodes

University of Virginia – Podcasts & webcasts

University of Washington – Computer Science & Engineering

Utah Valley University – Online courses & open educational resources

YouTube Channels:


Stanford Class Central – YouTube summaries of Stanford’s online courses

UC Berkeley

University of New South Wales


India’s NPTEL



Udemy – Take and build online courses on any subject

Free Video Lectures – 800+ Online Courses and 19,000+ Videos from Top 30+ Universities on 35+ Categories

100 Intro Open Courses on Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Learn

Annotum (formerly Google’s Knol)

IncrediCampus – Lectures and preparation/admission advice for college & graduate schools

Learners TV – Thousands of downloadable video lectures on liberal arts, science, engineering, and more

Online Education Database – 200 free online classes to learn anything

Infoplease – All the knowledge you need

MERLOT – Multimedia educational resource for learning and online teaching

Internet Archive

101 Online Self-improvement Resources

Alison – 300 free online courses at certificate or diploma level (sign-up required)

Teaching Resources:

The Orange Grove Digital Repository – Online library of openly available instructional resources for Florida’s educators – Browse teacher resources



WikiHow – The how-to manual that you can edit

How Stuff Works

Wonder How To


Make Magazine

How-to Help & Videos for Dummies

VideoJug – Get good at life

How to Create a Book in Wikipedia

Let’s Make Robots



Open Study – Study together

P2P University – Learn anything with your peers

Study Blue – Your digital backpack



Google Books

WikiBooks – Open-content textbooks collection that anyone can edit

Project Gutenberg

Planet eBook – Home of free classic literature

Open Book Project

The Free Library

Many Books – Ad-free eBooks

WorldCat – Collections & services of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide

iBiblio – The public’s library and digital archive

LibriVox – Free public domain audiobooks

The Assayer – Web’s largest catalog of books whose authors have made them available for free Free eBook Collection

Scribd – Reading and publishing evolved

Textbook Revolution – Student-run site dedicated to increasing the use of free educational materials

Directory of Open Access Journals

eReaderIQ – Recent non-public domain freebies & price-drop alerts

Longform – New and classic non-fiction articles curated across the web

Flatworld Knowledge – The first and largest publisher of free & open textbooks



W3Schools – The world’s largest web development site

Google Code University

The New Boston – Step-by-step tutorials for multiple coding languages

UDacity – CS 101

PHP Academy

Better PHP

Wired How-to Wiki – Teach a kid to program

NetTuts+ – A large collection of coding tutorials

Tutorial Guide – The site for all your tutorial needs

Codecademy – Fun & interactive way to learn how to code

Free Technology Academy – High quality educational material based on free software & open standards

Higher Computing for Everyone – Writing basic programs

HTML 5 Please

Rails for Zombies

Ruby Warrior – Open source game to teach Ruby language

Got API – Documentation search engine

Coding Bat – Online code practice in Java & Python

PySchools – Python programming language tutorial

appendTo – Learn jQuery and Javascript for free

Lynda – Online software training videos

Intro to Linux

Stack Overflow – Q&A for professional and enthusiast programmers

DZone – Fresh links for developers

Project Euler – A series of challenging mathematical & computer programming problems

Professor Messer – CompTIA A+, Network+, and Security+ certifications

Photoshop & Graphics:

Tutorial Hero – Photoshop & Flash tutorials

PSD Tuts+

Photoshop Tutorials

Graphic Tutorials

Photoshop Pack Graphic Design Resources

PSD FanExtra Tutorials

Vandelay Design – Photoshop Tutorial Hall of Fame

Grokking the GIMP

Video CoPilot – Tutorials for VFx & motion graphics



Google Scholar – Stand on the shoulder of giants

Scirus – The most comprehensive scientific research tool on the web

Cite Seer X – Access scientific and scholarly knowledge

getCited – Academic database, directory, & discussion forum

National Science Digital Library – Explore, share, create

Science Magazine Podcasts

National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning – Science, Engineering, & Technology

KQED’s Quest – Explore science, nature, and environment stories from Northern California and beyond

Freelance Teacher – Videos on physics, chemistry, math, & biology

FHSST – Free high school science texts in physical sciences & math

Free Science Lectures – Free Science Videos & Lectures

Physicist TV – Collection of science & documentary videos

Educated Earth – Videos on astronomy, biology, chemistry, earth sciences, math, physics, and more

cK-12 Flexbooks

Paul’s Online Math Notes

Reddit’s List of Useful Online Math Resources

Math, Better Explained

Astronomy & Outerspace:

Space Engine – Free space simulation software

Google Sky

NASA for Students

Scale of the Universe – Interactive Flash Animation


Vassar Stats – Concepts and applications of inferential statistics

StatSoft Electronic Statistics Textbook

Connexions Collaborative Statistics

Handbook of Biological Statistics



Mind Tools – Memory improvement techniques

The Nizkor Project – List of logical fallacies

Wikipedia’s List of Logical Fallacies

Wikipedia’s List of Figures of Speech

Tool Kit for Rhetorical Analysis

KnoWord – Expand your vocabulary – Learn new words & explore language

Brain Workshop – A Dual N-Back Game

Argument Mapping Tutorials

Philosophy Bites – Podcasts of top philsophers



Basic Composition – Reading & Writing

BBC Languages – Beginner courses in multiple languages

Foreign Service Institute Language Courses

Language Guide – Foreign language vocabulary, grammar, & readings

eLanguage School – Free foreign language lessons online

Free Online Language Courses via

DuoLingo – Learn a language for free & simultaneously translate the web

Babel Nation – Learning languages online for free

Transparent Language – Language learning software & resources in over 100 languages

Survival Phrases – Learn essential travel phrases, tips, and insights

Talk to Me in Korean

Chinese Toolbox – Software for learning Chinese through reading

LiveMocha – World’s largest language learning community

American Sign Language (ASL) University

Handspeak – Sign language

Signing Savvy – Your sign language resource



Berklee Shares – Free music lessons from Berklee College of Music

Music Theory – Lessons, exercises, & tools

Ear Training & Music Theory Software

Basic Music Theory Music Education – Music theory

Teoria – Music Theory Web

Ultimate Guitar – Lessons, techniques, & styles

Justin Guitar – The best guitar instruction on the web

Chorder – Chord fingering and guitar resources

Funk University – Assembly of Music’s Finest

Play Bass Now – Lessons, licks, and low notes

How to Play Piano



Teacher Resources – Western Civilization (52 half-hour video programs)

Metropolitan Museum of Art – Timeline of Art History




Google Advisor

Google Finance

MarketWatch by WSJ

Main Street – Business & financial headlines & advice

Stanford University’s Entrepreneurship Corner

Value Based Management – Methods, models, and theories

Ludwig von Mises Institute – Austrian economics and praxeology

Foundation for Economic Education

Library of Economics and Liberty



Good Eats Fan Page

Jamie’s Home Cooking Skills

Chef Todd Mohr’s Web Cooking Classes (YouTube)

Nutrition Data – Self nutrition data; know what you eat – Smart nutrition & practical tips

Choose My Plate via USDA

The World’s Healthiest Foods

Calorie King

Start Making Choices – Simple ideas for living healthier on a budget

Eat Right Nutrition Tips



Off Grid Survival – Wilderness and urban survival skills

Backwoods Magazine – Self reliance and self sufficiency

Survival Topics – Your online survival kit

Wilderness Survival – Free info covering all aspects of survival

Discovery’s Worst-Case Scenario Video Clips



Documentary Wire

Factual TV – The documentary film video store

Documentary Heaven – Food for your brain

Surf the Channel

DocuWatch – Free streaming documentaries on Art, History, Science, and more

Documentary Tube – Watch full-length documentaries online for free

Documentary Log – Watch hundreds of the most interesting, popular, and full-length documentaries

Documentary Stream

Documentary Storm – Free streaming documentaries

Top Documentary Films – Watch free documentaries online

Movies Found Online – Free movies & documentaries

Quick Silver Screen – Movies & documentaries

MVGroup Forums – An education in P2P (sign-up required)

Film Studies:

Film Studies for Free – Web archive of notable film studies resources

Online Film and Movie Image Studies, PhD and MPhil Theses

Online Film and Media Studies Journals

List taken from:

Back to the Blog: 2012 Edition

We took a hiatus over the holiday to recharge and refocus, but now we’re back to provide interesting insights and thought-provoking ideas in this space throughout 2012. We recently looked at our anlalytics for the blog, and were happily surprised at the numbers. During the fall 2011 semester, we had:

  • 3,441 visits
  • 1,776 unique visitors
  • 5,430 page  views

We’d like to give a big ‘thank you’ for those that find the conversations and resources here useful, and we encourage you to keep checking back (and don’t be afraid to leave some comments, we’re happy to answer any questions or engage in discussion here)! 

One initiative I wanted to quickly mention is the University’s exploration of lecture capture technologies. We piloted Echo 360 in the fall, and this semester we are continuing with the Echo 360 Pilot, as well as piloting a new system, Panopto. We spent a lot of time examining lecture capture research last semester, and will soon be posting a Lecture Capture Research Starter Kit on our research page, alongside the gaming and mobile learning kits. After working through nearly 50 articles on lecture capture, some common themes emerge:

  • Students typically watch portions of the recorded lecture as opposed to the entire thing.
  • Students report that the availability of recorded lectures allows them to put more focus on the content of a lecture (as opposed to rapidly taking detailed notes, for example).
  • The majority of studies indicate that the availability of recorded lectures have little impact on student attendance. In fact, most students report that attending a lecture in person is still a much better learning experience.
  • Specific audiences, such as English as a Second Language (ESL) students and student-athletes, find recorded lectures especially valuable.
  • When looking across studies, it appears that you can expect over 60% of your class to access and view recorded lectures if you make them available (some studies report up to 90% class utilization).
  • The most common reason for watching a recorded lecture is to review for exams.

The research starter kit dives much deeper into the variables and survey instruments related to lecture capture. If you’re interested in trying this technology, check out PSU’s lecture capture website where you can request an account.

Assessing Student Blog Activity

As more faculty continue to leverage the University’s blog platform for teaching and learning, we continually are asked:

“How do I assess what my students are doing on the blog?”

This question is particularly challenging for a variety of reasons.  In some instances, students are writing in their own personal blog space.  With a roster of 50 students, this represents 50 different blogs the instructor must visit for each assignment (although an RSS reader can help instructors be more efficient using this method). The model that we see more often now involves instructors creating a blog, then adding all of their students as authors to that blog.  This alleviates the need to go visit each blog separately while also increasing the interaction between students.  When all entries are authored in a single blog, it makes interacting with one another simple.

In terms of the actual assessment of student work, we typically see two different methods.

  1. Assess each individual entry.  This typically involves some sort of rubric to guide the student’s writing, and each individual entry receives a specific grade.  Mark Sample offers a good example rubric in the Chronicle.
  2. Assess the students’ blogging activity as a whole.  This method of assessment provides a single grade for the entirety of a student’s blogging activity throughout the semester.  Chris Long, Associate Professor of Philosophy, assesses student blog work in this manner and also shares the rubric he uses on his website.

Do you have a rubric for assessing student blogging activity?  If you do, and you don’t mind sharing, please feel free to send it to me (bkp10[at]  I’m working on a collection of blog rubrics to share on our website for new faculty looking to experiment with blogs.

Customized Textbooks

How many required textbooks approximately does a student need every semester? How much do they cost? Does a student read every chapter in the required textbook(s)? Does the instructor discuss with students the importance of every assigned reading from required textbook(s) and how it applies to other course content? If the answer for the last two questions is “YES”, I think it is definitely worth spending money purchasing required textbook(s) because students do learn facts and concepts by reading them and understand how to apply what they learn in the real world. However, most of time the answer for the last two questions is “NO”!

Reading the article “New Digital Tools Let Professors Tailor Their Own Textbooks for Under $20” written by Alex Campbell reminds me of the research on exploring why so few students complete their reading assignments conducted by Associate Professor Amit Sharma in the School of Hospitality Management. Data collected from focus groups indicated that students prefer relevant and applicable readings, such as case studies and journal articles, instead of dated textbooks. Also, many students complained about the price of textbooks especially when those textbooks are seldom used.

Although there are different opinions about customized textbooks, I think it may be a good idea to think about using this new tool. I think that the instructor creates a customized textbook which covers fundamental concepts, case studies, updated information, and other important materials can not only help students save some money, but also increase students’ interest and motivation to read assigned readings and learn.


The article is here: