There are several approaches to displaying superscript and subscript text on the Web, and each have their uses depending on your needs.

## MathML and Accessibility

If the superscript or subscript character is part of a mathematical equation, MathML markup is the most accessible, especially for blind users on a screen reader.

If MathML is not the right solution, there are some additional options to consider below.

## HTML and CSS

For most purposes, you can use the <sup></sup> tag to create super script text and <sub></sub> to create sub-script text. See examples below:

Code: x<sup>x+1</sup>
Result: xx+1

Code: x<sub>i+1</sub>
Result: xi+1

Note: Although some Web standards professionals recommend avoiding these tags, they are part of the HTML 5 and XHTML standards.

### CSS Styles and the SUP/SUB Tags

You change the CSS attributes of the <sup> and <sub> tags to improve line spacing, formatting and placement of characters. See references below:

Note: If you wish to avoid <sup> and <sub> because they are presentational, you can use sizing and vertical alignment CSS with <span> or another appropriate tag.

## Using Unicode Values

Many common superscript and subscript characters have their own Unicode entries and entity codes. If your Web page is generated from a database or meant to be a searchable archive, the use of Unicode values may be preferable.