Maintain Our Multiculturalism (or Face the Alternative)

I had a dream last night: a detestable dream that satiated my mind with discontentment and stark disappointment. While I still lived in the United States, the country was no longer my home, for it had been uprooted from its heart, stripped of its most defining feature, and placed inside a bubble of restriction. The United States had been overrun by extreme racism and isolationism, and not a crevice was saved for multiculturalism. Needless to say, the resultant effects- both on a national and individual level- were alarming.

In my dream, which is more appropriately titled a nightmare, the inclusive image that the United States has upheld was dismally defaced. Since immigration was now outlawed, the United States, once referred to as “the land of opportunity,” was now perceived to be egotistical and uncongenial. In truth, the scenes that I observed in my sleep shockingly reminded me of some of the scenes that I watched in a documentary on North Korea.

America the beautiful had been transformed into America the repugnant: a dark nation, filled with racism by cause of the hostile facade that contrasted with what was once dubbed “the melting pot.” The United States was no longer the dignified country that I once associated with a bald eagle soaring through the crystal blue sky or a red, white and blue flag billowing with respect.

Not only was our internal chemistry driven to chaos, but also our nation’s international relations rapidly became nonexistent, and the tension between us and all foreign nations elevated to levels never seen priorly. The headquarters of the United Nations was relocated, and the vacant building in New York City that once held civil discussions regarding international peace stood as a memory of the America that everyone once knew and loved. Not surprisingly, the United States was removed from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Group of 7.

Though some countries have expressed a misunderstanding of our nation’s inclusive nature, they subtly admired us for it. Once the kid on the playground who always had the best toys, our nation was now the kid on the playground with whom nobody wanted to play. After all, if we couldn’t remain loyal to our own citizens, how could any nation believe that we would be loyal to them?

A lack of alliances inevitably equates to a lack of free trade, which embodies the circumstances and the consequences that were displayed in this bleak dream of mine. Deprived of free trade, the United States was no longer capable of importing goods, which slowly caused a lack of ordinary pleasures. China thought that we were nothing more than a joke, so we had no cell phones. Brazil and Colombia both believed us to be an absolute mockery, so we had no coffee. Mexico, our former North American Free Trade Agreement partner, wished that we would dematerialize from the Earth, so we had no fruit. Since we, wired on the craze of exclusivity to such an extent that mirrored Nazism, wanted to be fully self-sustainable, we had to protect ourselves, without any crutch for support. In the end, we crippled even further.

Charged by a strong detestation of immigrants, our nation no longer knew of multicultural societies, for there was only one idea in focus: the perfection of America. Our government officials believed that they could achieve an ideal nation by adopting severe isolationism, but their goal of united ethnocentricity failed, and instead there existed a nation that had no affiliation with any others. No longer could an industrious Penn State student travel abroad to study his or her curriculums in a fresh, eye-opening setting.

The United States government, power-hungry and yearning for security, initially meant well; however, the inclusion of all races and heritages within our homeland, a characteristic that previously distinguished us among others, led to a spiraling series of events that transformed my beloved America into a meaningless land mass that lacked culture.

A nation opposed to multiculturalism is a nation that is opposed to growth, generosity, compassion, and sustainability. While we have a strong sense of multiculturalism at the moment, we must charge forward with it, and make the most of our unique abilities to befriend anyone we so desire. Too many citizens take multiculturalism for granted or lack the deliberateness to understand its complexities. Personally, I do not know if our nation’s leaders have the means to initiate such a destructive uproar, but I do know that I experienced this horrifying nightmare. I am glad I woke up.

Looking to the Beginnings

When we look at the world around us, we are very prone to think that some things “just are.” Many aspects of our modern society have been adopted and adapted from other cultures over many centuries. However, oftentimes things that have become commonplace in our everyday lives are attached to deeper cultural meanings that go unseen and misunderstood. In today’s post, I’ll be outlining some things in pop culture that possess a cultural story worth hearing about. As Ray Browne puts it, “popular culture consists of the aspects of attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, customs, and tastes that define the people of any society.”

Henna

In the recent decade, henna has been increasingly adopted as a modern “fashion” trend. It has become so mainstream that the hashtag on Instagram, #henna, currently has over six million posts. Many have stained their skin with the ink, but many less are aware of its history. Henna is actually known as “mehndi” in Urdu and Hindi, and it is approximated that it may have been around for 9,000 years. Regions including the Middle East, India, and Africa are where henna was originally most popular. Though it may come as a surprise, henna was not originally used for artistic expression, but rather homeostatic purposes. As Silk & Stone puts it, henna paste was used by travelers in the desert “to get an air conditioning affect.” The residual patterns of the stain on the skin inspired the substance’s more creative employment. Still today, it is used for spiritual purposes in marriage ceremonies, birthdays, and traditional blessings.

Pizza

While it’s a commonly held belief that pizza was made by the Italians, the truth is that it’s unknown who actually made the first pizza. Back in ancient times, the Greeks, Egyptians, and Babylonians all had their special takes on what we currently call “pizza.” It really makes sense if you think about it, because the primary concept of a pizza is relatively simple: dough, sauce, and maybe some type of topping. However, each culture’s attempt at the food had a creative spin. Naples, Italy, which was occupied heavily by Greek ancient travelers, became a hub for pizza. In the centuries to follow, Italians began to immigrate to other parts of Europe and the world, bringing pizza with them wherever they went. Nowadays, you can find at least 75,243 pizzerias populating the United States.

Braids

From native tribes to the Vikings, and from Africa to China- braids have not originated from a single place. Rather, they have been embedded in the beginnings of many cultural groups. In traditional African tribes, the style of braid an individual wore represented the tribe to which they belonged. Ancient Egyptians employed braids for the purpose of warding off lice and keeping cool in the blazingly harsh sun. Braids in Ancient Greek culture symbolized social class, and therefore were taken very seriously. In some Native American tribes, men would constantly keep their hair tied into braids so that they would be ready to battle at any moment. In Mongolian culture, braids were not outwardly displayed, but rather carefully incorporated and tucked into extravagant headpieces. Today, people who belong to all cultural groups sport braids, and Youtube is filled with tutorial videos that offer lessons in braiding.

Kimono

The word kimono is frequently used modernly to refer to a light outerwear garment or loungewear, but the history of the kimono is too rich to be ignored. Dating back to as early as 710 in Japan, kimonos originated from the creators’ desire for comfort and convenience. If you have ever worn a kimono before, you would know that they’re rather comfy and tend to hang over most parts of the body. The original kimono-making technique, the “straight-line-cut method,” manifested because it voided the maker’s concern for the shape of the wearer’s body. The color of traditional kimonos typically represented one’s social class, but as kimonos became more widely accepted by the Japanese, more vibrant colors became common. Today, the Japanese do not typically wear kimonos on a day-to-day basis, but rather reserve them for special occasions.

Hair Dying

It’s not a new idea to hide grey hairs behind stains of dye. Remember the henna that was previously discussed? It was also used by the Ancient Egyptians to recolor grey hairs. As the practice of hair coloring spread to other cultures, people decided to experiment with a plethora of strategies (and colors) when creating their hair dyes. Some used natural plant or root extracts while others used animal parts; however, all tried their best to concoct safe dyes and avoid anything toxic. Over time, hair dyes became more reliant on tested chemicals instead of natural solutions, which increased the safety of the practice and resulted in a widespread adoration of hair coloring.

50 Shades of Skin

I know that in my first blog post, Our Multicultural Missteps, I emphasized pretty fervidly that multiculturalism is about much more than just race. However, I have recently been feeling quite passionately about the way we reference race in our everyday conversations.

I’ll start with a tale! Last week before uploading my post to the blogosphere, I had a few friends read it over and provide me with some feedback. One of my friends was particularly taken aback that I used the phrase “white girls” so casually in my piece. I explained to him that I wasn’t being disrespectful in any fashion. They are white, and they are girls. Plain and simple, right?


Well, as I have come to observe, not everyone thinks this way. I have frequently heard people make the claim “I don’t see race.” To be frank, the only people who can actually make this claim are those who are legally colorblind. When we look at people, our eyes automatically work to perceive the color of their skin, and this information is relayed to our brains making us actively conscious of race.

Sure- I know that’s not the exact expression behind the claim. It’s more so a way for people to justify that they aren’t “racist.” However, recognizing that someone is African American and referring to him as “black” does not display racism. Racism comes into play when prejudices and discrimination are employed or implied. Someone’s skin color isn’t a secret (except potentially for the colorblind crowd), but there seems to be a common belief among society that we need to keep it one. Failing to recognize our racial differences does nothing but perpetuate an environment of exclusiveness and mental segregation in which we are too apprehensive to celebrate our diversity.

As a society, it is our current job to stop avoiding conversations about race and create them instead. We need to eliminate the awkward comments and minuscule mentionings (Oprah provides a handful of far-too-relatable examples here) of our differences in skin color, and instead adopt a fresh perspective in which we appreciate them. As the knowledgeable Eleanor Roosevelt once said …”if we are to live together, we will have to talk.”

Let’s jump into a more concrete context to highlight our lack of racial communication. Each and everyday, we encounter subtleties of racial complications that we rarely seem to recognize. One of the most prominent ones to me is the lack of a diverse color spectrum in the sales industry.

One of the most easily noticeable instances of this is with makeup foundations. In recent years, a spotlight has been brought to the trouble that people of color frequently have while shopping for makeup. This article from Cosmopolitan explains the rigorous process that some women go through to find a foundation that perfectly matches and flatters their skin complexions. But I’m sure that if you’re a woman, you noticed the racial barrier that makeup presents when you tried to borrow foundation from a friend but quickly realized that it simply would not blend into your face.

How many of you recall drawing a picture of yourself in elementary school? All you had were the school-provided crayons, so you and your peers widely referred to the apricot-colored crayon as “skin color.” You may have found it a little strange when your friend with brown skin asked you to pass the “skin color” crayon, but at six years old, you were too young to say anything about it, which is understandable. After all, do you recall your teachers ever trying to address it? Doubtful. However, now Crayola has marketed their pack of eight “multicultural” crayons, so hopefully kids in the second grade today are more able to express their individual skin colors than my peers and I were in 2005.

When you think of the color “nude,” what pigment do you envision? Oftentimes, people talk about a need for nude colored undergarments, and still today, women who have less popular shades of skin struggle to find bras that complement their complexions. Just last year, Aerie launched a line under their Real Me collection that introduced some new colors of bras that are hard to come by in stores.

But what about things that we might not consider much? Stockings are typically only sold in two shades- the (usually poor) attempt at “latte” and a stark “black.” How about band-aids? Leotards and ballet slippers?

To conclude, we have only begun to soften the racial confines that many individuals have been stuck behind for years now. And the way that society was able to materialize adjustments that overcame these confines was by talking. Groups of individuals found courage and used it to propel dialogue regarding racial equity and recognition. Do you know what happened? The voices were heard.

There is no way for us to learn about each other’s endeavors with race if we keep our thoughts bundled up in our brains. So instead of writing about racial conflicts in our diaries, let’s become one another’s verbal diaries and think aloud. Let’s articulate, exchange, and share.

Differentiating Between Appreciation and Appropriation

On Tuesday of my last school spirit week in high school, my peers and I celebrated ‘Heritage Day’ by donning pieces of attire symbolic of our cultural backgrounds. As a member of the student government at the time, I had helped brainstorm the concept behind this particular spirit day. It was intended to be unifying in the sense that everyone would be able to celebrate his or her personal heritages on a single day, together. Unfortunately, some students missed the celebration memo and decided to sham the cultures of others.

I didn’t notice the looming issue until after the school day had ended and I was at track practice. Drexlar, my good friend and one of the most easy-going people I know was noticeably upset. As it turns out, there were a few white girls who had come to school wearing dashikis, which are traditional African tops. Though they are home to Africa, dashikis emerged on the market in America during the 1960s as a symbol of combat against social disrespect towards African Americans. The girls from my school wore African dashikis, but they did not display honor for the historical context that exists behind the fabric. Instead, they headed to social media, posting their photos in their dashikis with ignorant captions mentioning “jungles.”

Seeing my friend’s culture being appropriated and the effect that it had on her opened my eyes to the severe problem that exists in our society. Today I’m writing in attempt to help differentiate between cultural appreciation and cultural appropriation.

The line drawn between these two terms is definitely a fine one. According to Merriam-Webster, appreciation is defined as “a feeling or expression of admiration, approval, or gratitude.” That definition makes me feel warm and happy inside. Appropriation, however, is defined as “the act or instance of taking exclusive possession.” This definition makes me feel susceptible and powerless.

Perhaps the finest confliction of appreciation and appropriation exists as the dreadlock debacle. If you are not familiar with this issue, refer here for a quick and concise synopsis of both sides of the conflict.

After learning about the dreadlock debate, many people might inquire, “Then why are perms on ethnic individuals not appropriation?” Well, the concept behind a perm is to reform the natural shape of someone’s hair, making it more tame and manageable. Before someone can go ahead and pin this as appropriation, however, some logistics need to be considered. As established by many research studies including this sociology study concerning the role race plays in employment, a minority struggle is still present in the workforce. The rate at which employers display preference of white employees over black employees ranges from 50% to 240%. To ease this statistic and enhance their marketability for employment, black individuals often seek out perms in order to appear more professional. The point here, however, isn’t to dwell over hairstyles. The dialogue regarding hair is just a tangible example that lends to the larger, underlying problem: widespread acceptance of casual cultural appropriation.

For example, did you know that in 2016 the brand Emmaatan attempted to market a spray “tan” that touched hues far darker than tan? The controversial product was manufactured so that white women could artificially dye their skin dark shades of “chocolate” and “onyx.” This product literally opened a portal through which people could decide to change their skin color with the spritz of a can without adopting any of the other attributes that come with belonging to a specific race.

Similarly, cultural war bonnets or headdresses were created by Sioux American Indians to demonstrate reverence for courageous warriors and tribal chiefs. In fact, the honoree wearing the headdress acquired its feathers one at a time, receiving a new one with each demonstration of courage. When people wear imitations of this deeply rooted traditional artifact as a Halloween costume or to go to a festival because it looks “hipster,” they are ignorantly implying that an ordinary individual without any ties to Native American culture is equivalent to a celebrated, selfless tribal leader.

Undeniably, however, there are some instances in which people truly recognize the value of another culture and would like to observe it in their own lives in a respectful manner, which I find to be beautiful. When it comes down to pinpointing the location of the line that separates appreciation and appropriation, it’s all about evaluating intentions.

Instead of placing the major focus on how we style our hair or the clothes with which we cover our bodies, we should hone into what inspires us. For example, if a girl is born into a Spanish family but finds herself growing up in Istanbul, she is immersed in Turkish culture and of course she should accept and embrace Turkish customs. If a white boy has a large group of Indian friends who invite him to attend a garba event, he should accept the offer with respect and seize the opportunity to learn more of his friends’ culture. There is no need to deny inspiration from other cultures so long as it is accompanied with respect.

So before you wear a dashiki to school or borrow your best friend’s saree, educate yourself on the historical aspects, both good and bad, that are enrooted in these cultural clothing items. The same goes for other displays of custom: hairstyles, makeup, rituals, activities, social gatherings, art, or music. Just because something may appear beautiful does not mean that it has always been so. I have found that more times than you’d believe, cultural components are linked to historical hardship that needed to be overcome. If you want to take part in something that is symbolic of a culture other than your own, be sure to represent the culture wholly and honestly while also reaping its fruits.

Our Multicultural Missteps

  1. We concentrate on the color of one’s skin.

    What do you envision when you hear the word “multicultural?” More often than not, the word evokes the image of a group of people intertwined by race. Or maybe it’s a large collection of hands, each displaying a different skin tone. However, a multicultural group is one that contains more than just an array of races. 

    First let’s quickly take a look at the definition of the word “culture.” Most typically, culture is defined in two ways. Both of these definitions have been obtained from Oxford. The first definition provided is “the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.” In other words, this is the common, current culture that a certain group of people, such as teenagers, are enjoying during a certain time period, such as the 2000’s. This culture can take many forms including music, tv shows, movies, books, magazines, and games. The catch with this kind of culture is that it’s dynamic. It’s constantly evolving as time moves forward and as an age group’s interests change.

    The second definition provided is “the ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society.” This is the kind of culture that we carry with us throughout our lifetimes. It does not waver, for it is rooted in traditions and oftentimes, it is rooted in our family trees. For example, someone who is born from Swedish descendancy will continue to be Swedish throughout the span of his or her lifetime. Although, our individual cultures do not necessarily need to be the result of blood. A boy of European descent who was born and raised in America and moves to Chile when he is nineteen will likely maintain some of his American culture in his new country of residency, however, he is also more than likely to adopt aspects of Chilean culture as well. In this scenario, the boy himself has become a work of multiculturalism.

    Thus, the word implies much more than simply someone’s skin color. This is not to say that race is not a significant component of multiculturalism. After all, it is one of the only defining cultural characteristics that we can witness with only our eyes. But culture embodies one’s values, customs, beliefs, and traits of all sorts. To truly understand these more personal aspects of one’s cultural, we must branch out from our own cultures, which brings me to our next point.

  2. We maintain an outside point of view.

    When approaching multiculturalism in today’s society, it appears to me that some people are afraid to become educated about and engaged in cultures besides their own. This can only be done when we burst our protective bubbles and branch out to embrace another’s unique culture. Okay, sure you can’t jump into another person’s body to grasp an understand of his or her background. However, you CAN play an active role in promoting a multicultural society by actively interacting with people who belong to different groups than you. Far too frequently, people believe that they can be welcoming to all without actually recognizing all. 

    Let’s look at a few examples of unique cultural customs and the internal satisfaction that they allow the groups of people who practice them…

    The Swastika is most well known for the hatred that it represented throughout the Holocaust. However, when it is translated to Sanskrit, its native language, it means “well-being.” In Indian, Viking, and Greek culture, the clockwise Swastika (the original one) symbolizes positivity and prosperity. In fact, I have a friend from Indian who wears a bracelet with the Swastika on it. People who are unaware of the culture from which it descends probably often assume that he is a Neo-Nazi and disapproves of Jewish people. 

    Another tradition that may go unknown by some is the Eskimoan ritual for loved ones who may be suffering death or elderly age beyond functioning. The custom is to set these individuals afloat on an iceberg all alone. Though it may sound sad to some and may even receive harsh criticism, the tradition exists because Eskimos have a strong belief in an afterlife. By sending their disabled loved ones out to sea on an iceberg, they are displaying a respect for the individual’s dignity that they will not be a burden on the family.

    A special tradition in my Polish household is to bless the house each year on the Feast of the Epiphany in January. We use chalk to write a symbolic combination of the current year and the initials of the three wise men, Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar, over our front door to bless anyone who passes through. This year the scripture over our door reads “20+C+M+B+18.” 

    These customs and beliefs are unique to specific cultures, but there is no reason why they should not be shared. Multiculturalism is manifested when we do share and embrace the cultures of others, and this can only be done effectively by taking an active and inside role in other people’s cultures. Who knows? You may even find that you establish an intrinsic rooting in the cultural customs of others and you adopt them for celebration as well. Do not be afraid to do this based on what others may assume of you. It only means that you are becoming more multicultural as well as demonstrating genuine respect for the values of others!

  3. We pretend to understand.

    This one is much less complex than the others. The phrases “I know” or “I understand” have no relevance or necessity when attempting to console or comfort another. Oftentimes, people are faced with hardship or discrimination due to their cultural differences and may turn to someone of another culture for help. By using these insubstantial phrases, we are unintentionally simplifying an issue that should certainly not be simplified. If you come across an instance in your life in which you are in a similar situation, avoid these common phrases. If someone is coming to you seeking relief, they are asking you to listen, respect, and empathize to the best of your abilities. For more details on why we need to stop saying that we “understand” and “know,” visit the Odyssey