Ancient Sources:

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 7.71

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 4.96

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, 5.71

Xenophen, Hellenica, 7.1.31

Secondary Sources:

Ferrill, Arther. “Classical Greek Warfare.” The Origins of War: From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great. New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, 1985. 91-147. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Gregory Viggiano, Hans Van Wees, Paul Cartledge, Anthony Snodgrass, Kurt Raaflaub, Peter Krentz, Adam Schwartz, John Hale, Lin Foxhall, and Victor Hanson. Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece. Woodstock, Oxfordshire: Princeton UP, 2013. Print.

Krentz, P. (1985). The nature of hoplite battle. Classical Antiquity, 4(1), 50-61. Retrieved from

Matthew , C. (2009). When push comes to shove: What was the othismos of hoplite combat?. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 58(4), 395-415. Retrieved from

Sage, Michael M. Warfare in Ancient Greece: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 1996. 72-94. Print.

Sekunda, Nick, and Adam Hook. Greek Hoplite: 480-323 BC. Oxford: Osprey, 2000. Print.


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