If you’ve seen my CV, you’ll know that I did my research in Celtic linguistics. I just downloaded a new dissertation on The Integration of English-origin Verbs in Welsh from J.R. Stammers.
I’m still processing it, but one question that comes up is what the “default” marker for Welsh verb-nouns (basically an infinitive) is…because Welsh has a lot of options. I would have guessed -u because it is very frequent in native verbal roots, but it may be -io. Stammers (2009) has this list of English verbs with the –io ending on the verb noun.
Note: Forms with hypenated endings are more recent borrowings.
- carfio (carve)
- ffonio (phone)
- ffordio (afford)
- ffotocopïo (photocopy)
- sincio (sink)
- twrio (tour)
- fancy (-/i/ (i.e. -y) is a valid verb-noun ending)
- name-dropping (this uses English gerund ending instead)
- taking (with gerund)
A few exceptions?
- canslo (how old?)
- helpu (may be older)
- freak-o (definitely an recent borrowing)
Interesting stuff. I do wonder if -u was originally the default ending as in helpu and older Latinate verbs like cymharu ‘compare’. But these days, it appears that -io is the clear winner, at least in this data.